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MeSH Review

Rats, Gunn

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Disease relevance of Rats, Gunn


Psychiatry related information on Rats, Gunn


High impact information on Rats, Gunn

  • This method showed that light has a fast effect on bilirubin metabolism in homozygous Gunn rats, even at low doses and intensities [7].
  • A sustained decrease of plasma bilirubin concentrations occurred in homozygous recessive Gunn rats lacking the enzyme uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase following infusion into the portal vein of hepatocytes from heterozygous nonjaundiced Gunn rats possessing the enzyme [8].
  • Studies in adult Gunn rats demonstrated that Sn-protoporphyrin administration diminished biliary bilirubin output, decreased tissue heme oxygenase activity, and did not alter hepatic cytochrome P450 levels [9].
  • Tracer doses of purified radiolabeled biliverdin, bilirubin, bilirubin monoglucuronide (BMG) or diglucuronide (BDG) were administered intravenously to intact normal or jaundiced homozygous Gunn rats [10].
  • Isolated cryopreserved human liver cells, attached to collagen-coated microcarriers, were injected intraperitoneally into mutant rat recipients genetically deficient in either bilirubin uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase activity (Gunn rats) or albumin synthesis (Nagase analbuminemic rats) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Rats, Gunn


Biological context of Rats, Gunn


Anatomical context of Rats, Gunn

  • Results suggest that: (1) the bile from homozygous Gunn rats under phototherapy has an anti-absorptive effect when tested in the perfused jejunum of normal Wistar rats; (2) unconjugated bilirubin has a dose dependent secretory effect on the intestinal transport of water and electrolytes, when tested in the same system [21].
  • Use of this antibody preparation to probe Western blots of liver microsomes prepared from Gunn rats confirmed that the defective phenol glucuronidation was due to the absence of a 53-kDa, 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible UDPGT isoenzyme [22].
  • Transplantation of the fibroblasts corrected the genetic deficiency of the Gunn rats, serum bilirubin concentrations of the transplanted Gunn rats were reduced to normal, and bilirubin glucuronides appeared in bile [23].
  • The behavior of marker proteins of glial cells [alpha-enolase, beta-S100 protein, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] was investigated quantitatively by using enzyme immunoassay systems during the development of cerebellar hypoplasia in jaundiced Gunn rats [24].
  • In experiment 1 no serial changes were seen in activities of hexobarbital hydroxylase or benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase in hepatic microsomes isolated after 2, 4 or 7 days from homozygous jaundiced female Gunn rats exposed to continuous phototherapy or in matched Gunn rats maintained under dim light [19].

Associations of Rats, Gunn with chemical compounds

  • We have developed double mutants (GT-TR-) rats with both a conjugation and an excretion defect by cross-breeding uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronyl-transferase-deficient GT-TR+ Gunn rats with transport-deficient GT+TR- rats [25].
  • The abnormally low rate of glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol in the Gunn rats, as compared with Wistar rats, is due to decreased affinity of UDP-glucuronyltransferase for UDP-glucuronic acid [26].
  • Calculated values of deltaG degrees for the binding of the UDP portion of UDP-glucuronic acid suggest that the defect of UDP-glucuronyltransferase of Gunn rats appears limited to abnormal interactions between the enzyme and the UDP portion of UDP-glucuronic acid [26].
  • Acetaminophen (500 mg per kg) was administered intraperitoneally to homozygous and heterozygous Gunn rats and to Wistar controls [27].
  • Jaundiced Gunn rats, treated with phenobarbital (60 mg per kg i.p. for 7 to 10 days) showed 25 and 36% decreases in mean plasma bilirubin levels in two experiments (p less than 0.01) [2].

Gene context of Rats, Gunn

  • CYP1A2 mRNA and protein levels were indistinguishable in 3-month-old jaundiced and nonjaundiced Gunn rats, whereas CYP1A1 could not be detected in either group [28].
  • Moreover, the mRNA level of MRP3, but not that of P-gp, was increased in SD rats after administration of bilirubin and in Gunn rats whose hepatic bilirubin concentration is elevated because of a defect in the expression of UDP-glucuronosyl transferase [29].
  • In treated Gunn rats, bilirubin glucuronides were present in bile and UGT1A1 protein was detected in tissue [30].
  • In addition, no significant change in the level of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, the activity of hepatic sulfotransferase, and the binding of [125I]T4 to serum transthyretin and albumin by PB treatment was observed in either Wistar or Gunn rats [31].
  • Fasting in newborn Gunn rats caused an increase in serum bilirubin concentration and in liver bilirubin concentration and specific activity, and a significant stimulation of the heme catabolic enzyme, heme oxygenase, in liver [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rats, Gunn


  1. Oral tolerization to adenoviral antigens permits long-term gene expression using recombinant adenoviral vectors. Ilan, Y., Prakash, R., Davidson, A., Jona, n.u.l.l., Droguett, G., Horwitz, M.S., Chowdhury, N.R., Chowdhury, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of phenobarbital on bilirubin metabolism and its response to phototherapy in the jaundiced Gunn rat. Cohen, A.N., Kapitulnik, J., Ostrow, J.D., Zenone, E.A., Cochrane, C., Celic, L., Cheney, H. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. The presence of a microsomal UDP-glucuronyl transferase for bilirubin in homozygous jaundiced Gunn rats and in the Crigler-Najjar syndrome. Odell, G.B., Cukier, J.O., Gourley, G.R. Hepatology (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials in the Gunn rat model of acute bilirubin neurotoxicity. Shapiro, S.M. Pediatr. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. A difference in mortality between two strains of jaundiced rats. Stobie, P.E., Hansen, C.T., Hailey, J.R., Levine, R.L. Pediatrics (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Critical period of bilirubin-induced cerebellar hypoplasia in a new Sprague-Dawley strain of jaundiced Gunn rats. Keino, H., Kashiwamata, S. Neurosci. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Jaundice phototherapy: micro flow-cell photometry reveals rapid biliary response of Gunn rats to light. McDonagh, A.F., Ramonas, L.M. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Hepatocellular transplantation for metabolic deficiencies: decrease of plasms bilirubin in Gunn rats. Matas, A.J., Sutherland, D.E., Steffes, M.W., Mauer, S.M., Sowe, A., Simmons, R.L., Najarian, J.S. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Sn-protoporphyrin blocks the increase in serum bilirubin levels that develops postnatally in homozygous Gunn rats. Sisson, T.R., Drummond, G.S., Samonte, D., Calabio, R., Kappas, A. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Hepatic disposition and biliary excretion of bilirubin and bilirubin glucuronides in intact rats. Differential processing of pigments derived from intra- and extrahepatic sources. Crawford, J.M., Ransil, B.J., Potter, C.S., Westmoreland, S.V., Gollan, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Human liver cell transplantation. Prolonged function in athymic-Gunn and athymic-analbuminemic hybrid rats. Moscioni, A.D., Roy-Chowdhury, J., Barbour, R., Brown, L.L., Roy-Chowdhury, N., Competiello, L.S., Lahiri, P., Demetriou, A.A. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Hyperbilirubinemia results in reduced oxidative injury in neonatal Gunn rats exposed to hyperoxia. Dennery, P.A., McDonagh, A.F., Spitz, D.R., Rodgers, P.A., Stevenson, D.K. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular basis for deficient acetaminophen glucuronidation in cats. An interspecies comparison of enzyme kinetics in liver microsomes. Court, M.H., Greenblatt, D.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Assessment of the toxicity of cyclohexanone administered intravenously to Wistar and Gunn rats. Greener, Y., Martis, L., Indacochea-Redmond, N. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Experimental studies on kernicterus in thiamine-deficient Gunn rats. Ueno, Y., Masui, Y. Bulletin of the Osaka Medical School. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular basis for the lack of bilirubin-specific and 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in Gunn rats. The two isoforms are encoded by distinct mRNA species that share an identical single base deletion. Roy-Chowdhury, J., Huang, T.J., Kesari, K., Lederstein, M., Arias, I.M., Roy-Chowdhury, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Kinetics of biliary excretion of the main two bilirubin photoproducts after injection into Gunn rats. Onishi, S., Kawade, N., Itoh, S., Isobe, K., Sugiyama, S., Hashimoto, T., Narita, H. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Visual evoked potential abnormalities in jaundiced Gunn rats treated with sulfadimethoxine. Silver, S., Sohmer, H., Kapitulnik, J. Pediatr. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of phototherapy on the activity of microsomal mixed-function monooxygenases and the pharmacokinetics of [14C] hexobarbital in jaundiced and heterozygous Gunn rats. Tabata, M., Ostrow, J.D., Webster, C.C., Zucker, G.M., Kapitulnik, J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Embryotoxicity of bilirubin. Yeary, R.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Unconjugated bilirubin and the bile from light exposed Gunn rats inhibit intestinal water and electrolyte absorption. Guandalini, S., Fasano, A., Albini, F., Marchesano, G., Nocerino, A., De Curtis, M., Rubaltelli, F.F., Pettenazzo, A., Rubino, A. Gut (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Defective induction of phenol glucuronidation by 3-methylcholanthrene in Gunn rats is due to the absence of a specific UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoenzyme. Coughtrie, M.W., Burchell, B., Shepherd, I.M., Bend, J.R. Mol. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Transplantation of Gunn rats with autologous fibroblasts expressing bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase: correction of genetic deficiency and tumor formation. Seppen, J., Tada, K., Ottenhoff, R., Sengupta, K., Chowdhury, N.R., Chowdhury, J.R., Bosma, P.J., Oude Elferink, R.P. Hum. Gene Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparative study of glial marker proteins in the hypoplastic cerebellum of jaundiced Gunn rats. Aono, S., Sato, H., Semba, R., Kashiwamata, S., Kato, K., Eng, L.F. J. Neurochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Hepatobiliary excretion of organic anions in double-mutant rats with a combination of defective canalicular transport and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronyltransferase deficiency. Jansen, P.L., Peters, W.H., Meijer, D.K. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Defective function of a microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase in Gunn rats. Nakata, D., Zakim, D., Vessey, D.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Enhanced acetaminophen toxicity in rats with bilirubin glucuronyl transferase deficiency. de Morais, S.M., Wells, P.G. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Marked endogenous activation of the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes in the congenitally jaundiced Gunn rat. Kapitulnik, J., Gonzalez, F.J. Mol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Characterization of inducible nature of MRP3 in rat liver. Ogawa, K., Suzuki, H., Hirohashi, T., Ishikawa, T., Meier, P.J., Hirose, K., Akizawa, T., Yoshioka, M., Sugiyama, Y. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Long-term correction of bilirubin UDPglucuronyltransferase deficiency in rats by in utero lentiviral gene transfer. Seppen, J., van der Rijt, R., Looije, N., van Til, N.P., Lamers, W.H., Oude Elferink, R.P. Mol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Decrease in serum thyroxine level by phenobarbital in rats is not necessarily dependent on increase in hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Kato, Y., Suzuki, H., Ikushiro, S., Yamada, S., Degawa, M. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Stimulation of bilirubin formation in liver of newborn rats by fasting and glucagon. Thaler, M.M., Dawber, N.H. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  33. Auxiliary liver transplantation in jaundiced rats with UDP-glucuronyltransferase deficiency and defective hepatobiliary transport. Jansen, P.L., Hess, F., Peters, W.H., Koenders, E., Jerusalem, C., Corstens, F.H. J. Hepatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Studies on a cerebellar 50,000-dalton protein associated with cerebellar hypoplasia in jaundiced Gunn rats: its identity with glial fibrillary acidic protein as evidenced by the improved immunoblotting method. Aono, S., Sato, H., Semba, R., Kashiwamata, S., Eng, L.F. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. Heterogeneity of hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities. Conjugations of phenolic and monoterpenoid aglycones in control and induced rats and guinea pigs. Boutin, J.A., Thomassin, J., Siest, G., Cartier, A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  36. Treatment of enzyme deficiency by hepatocyte transplantation in rats. Vroemen, J.P., Blanckaert, N., Buurman, W.A., Heirwegh, K.P., Kootstra, G. J. Surg. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
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