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MeSH Review

Fetal Movement

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Disease relevance of Fetal Movement


High impact information on Fetal Movement


Chemical compound and disease context of Fetal Movement


Biological context of Fetal Movement


Anatomical context of Fetal Movement


Associations of Fetal Movement with chemical compounds


Gene context of Fetal Movement

  • The perinatal morbidity and mortality rates were significantly lower in the group showing an increase in fetal activity following a MGL [21].
  • The lowest PI of total fetal activity (TFA, i.e. FM plus FBM) was 12.1 per cent [22].
  • The diagnosis of CDM was suspected by ultrasound markers of borderline ventriculomegaly, polyhydramnios, and reduced fetal movements [23].
  • Using spectral analysis by the maximum entropy method (MEM), fetal movements were classified in three groups (FBM, fetal gross movements (FGM) and fetal heart movements (FHM), based on the character of their special peak frequencies [24].
  • The CST, the NST, and fetal-movement monitoring are potentially useful screening tests [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fetal Movement


  1. Antepartum fetal surveillance in gestational diabetes mellitus. Landon, M.B., Gabbe, S.G. Diabetes (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Antenatal manifestations of mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. von Kleist-Retzow, J.C., Cormier-Daire, V., Viot, G., Goldenberg, A., Mardach, B., Amiel, J., Saada, P., Dumez, Y., Brunelle, F., Saudubray, J.M., Chrétien, D., Rötig, A., Rustin, P., Munnich, A., De Lonlay, P. J. Pediatr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy treated with propylthiouracil. The significance of maternal and foetal parameters. Serup, J., Petersen, S. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of piperidine alkaloid-containing plants: reduction in fetal movement as the probable cause. Panter, K.E., Bunch, T.D., Keeler, R.F., Sisson, D.V., Callan, R.J. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Increased fetal activity with low maternal blood glucose levels in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. Holden, K.P., Jovanovic, L., Druzin, M.L., Peterson, C.M. American journal of perinatology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal movements. A method for assessing fetal development? Higginbottom, J., Bagnall, K.M., Harris, P.F., Slater, J.H., Porter, G.A. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Development of spontaneous mouth/tongue movement and related neural activity, and their repression in fetal mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 67. Tsunekawa, N., Arata, A., Obata, K. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Transient loss of the diurnal rhythms of fetal movements, heart rate, and its variation after maternal betamethasone administration. Koenen, S.V., Mulder, E.J., Wijnberger, L.D., Visser, G.H. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The effect of methadone treatment on the quantity and quality of human fetal movement. Wouldes, T.A., Roberts, A.B., Pryor, J.E., Bagnall, C., Gunn, T.R. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Fetal response to maternally administered morphine. Kopecky, E.A., Ryan, M.L., Barrett, J.F., Seaward, P.G., Ryan, G., Koren, G., Amankwah, K. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Temporary arrest of fetal movement with pancuronium bromide to enable antenatal magnetic resonance imaging of holoprosencephaly. Horvath, L., Seeds, J.W. American journal of perinatology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of maternal intravenous glucose administration on fetal activity. Eller, D.P., Stramm, S.L., Newman, R.B. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of thiopental anaesthesia on fetal motor behaviour in early pregnancy. Jørgensen, N.P., Marsál, K. Early Hum. Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of meperidine on fetal movements and heart rate beat-to-beat variability in the active phase of labor. Zimmer, E.Z., Divon, M.Y., Vadasz, A. American journal of perinatology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of neuromuscular blockade on fetal oxidative metabolism. Wilkening, R.B., Boyle, D.W. Biol. Neonate (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Decreased fetal movements with sustained maternal hyperglycemia using the glucose clamp technique. Edelberg, S.C., Dierker, L., Kalhan, S., Rosen, M.G. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Prevention of fetal movement during invasive procedures with pancuronium bromide. Seeds, J.W., Corke, B.C., Spielman, F.J. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Use of atracurium besylate to arrest fetal activity during intrauterine intravascular transfusions. Bernstein, H.H., Chitkara, U., Plosker, H., Gettes, M., Berkowitz, R.L. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Fetal movement, biochemical and biophysical parameters, and the outcome of pregnancy. Harper, R.G., Greenberg, M., Farahani, G., Glassman, I., Kierney, C.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Fetal movements in isoxsuprine-treated patients. Samueloff, A., Evron, S., Sadovsky, E. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of maternal glucose load on fetal activity. Aladjem, S., Feria, A., Rest, J., Gull, K., O'Connor, M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Intrapartum fetal activity. Yarkoni, S., Hobbins, J.C. Journal of perinatal medicine. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Congenital myotonic dystrophy. Upadhyay, K., Thomson, A., Luckas, M.J. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Measurement of fetal movements using multichannel ultrasound pulsed Doppler: autorecognition of fetal movements by maximum entropy method. Shinozuka, N., Yamakoshi, Y. Medical & biological engineering & computing. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Assessing the diagnostic accuracy and efficacy of selected antepartum fetal surveillance techniques. Thacker, S.B., Berkelman, R.L. Obstetrical & gynecological survey. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Anaesthesia for fetal surgery. Spielman, F.J., Seeds, J.W., Corke, B.C. Anaesthesia. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. The effect of neuromuscular blockade on human fetal heart rate and its variation. Spencer, J.A., Ryan, G., Ronderos-Dumit, D., Nicolini, U., Rodeck, C.H. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. The effect of betamethasone versus dexamethasone on fetal biophysical parameters. Mushkat, Y., Ascher-Landsberg, J., Keidar, R., Carmon, E., Pauzner, D., David, M.P. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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