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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Crataegus

  • In addition, these plants were analyzed for levels of flavanol-type substance [(-)-epicatechin] and flavonoid (vitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, acetylvitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, and hyperoside) constituents that are important metabolites in hawthorn herbal preparations used to treat patients with heart disease [1].

High impact information on Crataegus

  • Kyushin, licorice, plantain, uzara root, hawthorn, and ginseng may interfere with either digoxin pharmacodynamically or with digoxin monitoring [2].
  • One of the important mechanisms in the pathogeny of stroke is free radical production during the reperfusion period, therefore the effects of a type of natural antioxidant, i.e. Crataegus flavonoids (CF), on brain ischemic insults were investigated in Mongolian gerbil stroke model [3].
  • The results suggest that the mechanism by which hawthorn fruit decreases serum cholesterol involves, at least in part, the inhibition of cholesterol absorption mediated by down-regulation of intestinal ACAT activity [4].
  • After 12 wk, serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG) were 23.4 and 22.2% lower, respectively, in the hawthorn fruit group compared with the HC rabbits (P < 0.05) [4].
  • Furo-1,2-naphthoquinones from Crataegus pinnatifida with ICAM-1 expression inhibition activity [5].

Biological context of Crataegus

  • To confirm the drug action,we injected pXOE-PPARgamma plasmid into the oocytes, which then treated with prostaglandin E1 and Hawthorn flavonoids [6].
  • However, factorial contrast analysis in ANOVA showed a promising reduction (p = 0.081) in the resting diastolic blood pressure at week 10 in the 19 subjects who were assigned to the hawthorn extract, compared with the other groups [7].

Anatomical context of Crataegus


Associations of Crataegus with chemical compounds


Gene context of Crataegus

  • The levels of LPL in both Hawthorn flavonoids groups and PPARgamma ligand prostagalandin E1 group injected with pXOE-PPARgamma plasmid increased significantly (< 0.001) compared with controls, and a concentration-response relationship was observed between LPL mass and Hawthorn flavonoids [6].
  • This showed extracts of hawthorn and grape seed were equipotent as inhibitors of ET-1 synthesis [16].
  • Chitin synthase II inhibitory activity of ursolic acid, isolated from Crataegus pinnatifida [14].
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential antihypertensive effects of extracts of the flavonoid-rich Iranian flower, Crataegus curvisepala Lind., a member of the Rosaceae family [17].
  • These results demonstrate that hawthorn flavonoids meditate LPL expression in mice with tissue-specific differences [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Crataegus

  • The polyphenolic rich calli were as effective as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in preventing hydroperoxide and conjugated diene formation in a 30% oil-in-water emulsion prepared with stripped sunflower oil, during 7days storage at 30 degrees C. Crataegus monogyna cell culture represents an important alternative source for natural antioxidants [18].


  1. Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to drought and cold stress. Kirakosyan, A., Seymour, E., Kaufman, P.B., Warber, S., Bolling, S., Chang, S.C. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Miller, L.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Oral administration of Crataegus flavonoids protects against ischemia/reperfusion brain damage in gerbils. Zhang, D.L., Zhang, Y.T., Yin, J.J., Zhao, B.L. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Hawthorn fruit is hypolipidemic in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet. Zhang, Z., Ho, W.K., Huang, Y., James, A.E., Lam, L.W., Chen, Z.Y. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Furo-1,2-naphthoquinones from Crataegus pinnatifida with ICAM-1 expression inhibition activity. Min, B.S., Huong, H.T., Kim, J.H., Jun, H.J., Na, M.K., Nam, N.H., Lee, H.K., Bae, K., Kang, S.S. Planta Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. A peroxisome proliferator response elements regulatory system in xenopus oocytes and its application. Yan, J., Fan, C.L., Wo, X.D., Gao, L.P. Chin. Med. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Promising hypotensive effect of hawthorn extract: a randomized double-blind pilot study of mild, essential hypertension. Walker, A.F., Marakis, G., Morris, A.P., Robinson, P.A. Phytotherapy research : PTR. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Crataegus extract blocks potassium currents in guinea pig ventricular cardiac myocytes. Müller, A., Linke, W., Klaus, W. Planta Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by hawthorn extract in rat mesenteric artery. Chen, Z.Y., Zhang, Z.S., Kwan, K.Y., Zhu, M., Ho, W.K., Huang, Y. Life Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The protective effect of Allium sativum and crataegus on isoprenaline-induced tissue necroses in rats. Ciplea, A.G., Richter, K.D. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of lipoprotein lipase expression by effect of hawthorn flavonoids on peroxisome proliferator response element pathway. Fan, C., Yan, J., Qian, Y., Wo, X., Gao, L. J. Pharmacol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Interaction study between digoxin and a preparation of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha). Tankanow, R., Tamer, H.R., Streetman, D.S., Smith, S.G., Welton, J.L., Annesley, T., Aaronson, K.D., Bleske, B.E. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Antiviral and antioxidant activity of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins from Crataegus sinaica. Shahat, A.A., Cos, P., De Bruyne, T., Apers, S., Hammouda, F.M., Ismail, S.I., Azzam, S., Claeys, M., Goovaerts, E., Pieters, L., Vanden Berghe, D., Vlietinck, A.J. Planta Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Chitin synthase II inhibitory activity of ursolic acid, isolated from Crataegus pinnatifida. Jeong, T.S., Hwang, E.I., Lee, H.B., Lee, E.S., Kim, Y.K., Min, B.S., Bae, K.H., Bok, S.H., Kim, S.U. Planta Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Corosolic acid isolated from the fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida var. psilosa is a protein kinase C inhibitor as well as a cytotoxic agent. Ahn, K.S., Hahm, M.S., Park, E.J., Lee, H.K., Kim, I.H. Planta Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. The procyanidin-induced pseudo laminar shear stress response: a new concept for the reversal of endothelial dysfunction. Corder, R., Warburton, R.C., Khan, N.Q., Brown, R.E., Wood, E.G., Lees, D.M. Clin. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Antihypertensive effect of Iranian Crataegus curvisepala Lind.: a randomized, double-blind study. Asgary, S., Naderi, G.H., Sadeghi, M., Kelishadi, R., Amiri, M. Drugs under experimental and clinical research. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacities of Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) callus extracts. Bahorun, T., Aumjaud, E., Ramphul, H., Rycha, M., Luximon-Ramma, A., Trotin, F., Aruoma, O.I. Die Nahrung. (2003) [Pubmed]
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