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Gene Review

YWHAB  -  tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 14-3-3 protein beta/alpha, GW128, HEL-S-1, HS1, KCIP-1, ...
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Disease relevance of YWHAB


High impact information on YWHAB

  • A primary genome scan was performed using samples from a large, consanguineous family (HS1) (see Fig. 1). While this family was immensely powerful for mapping, the region demonstrating homozygosity in all affected members spans only 4 cM, requiring very close markers in order to detect linkage [6].
  • Naive B cells showed both HS1 forms while memory B cells expressed mainly the phosphorylated fraction [7].
  • Studies with the protein kinase C inhibitor, Calphostin C, suggest that the inhibition of reactive oxygen species release and lipid oxidation is due to an inhibition of protein kinase C activity by alpha tocopherol [8].
  • Furthermore, while PIP2 inhibits the actin-EMS1 interaction, HS1 reverses the PIP2 effect [9].
  • The specific protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, was without effect, whereas the unspecific inhibitors, staurosporine and calphostin C, abolished the shear stress-induced production of NO [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of YWHAB


Biological context of YWHAB


Anatomical context of YWHAB

  • Database searches indicated that clone HS1 corresponds to a human T-cell cDNA 14-3-3 clone, while the high level of similarity of clones 1054 and AS1 with the 14-3-3 beta and eta sequences respectively, suggested that they code for the human equivalent of the two bovine proteins [1].
  • Among these HS sites, one HS site (HS1) was ubiquitously detected in all cell lines examined, but the other three HS sites (HS2, HS3, and HS4) were associated only with RAG-1-expressing lymphoid cell lines [19].
  • Contrasting actions of staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, on human neutrophils and primary mouse epidermal cells [20].
  • Four strong DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HS2-5) were only detected in fibroblasts, and a weaker one (HS1) was identified in type I collagen-negative cells [21].
  • In U937 cells, this induction cannot be blocked by the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine [22].

Associations of YWHAB with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of YWHAB


Other interactions of YWHAB


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of YWHAB


  1. Molecular cloning and expression of the transformation sensitive epithelial marker stratifin. A member of a protein family that has been involved in the protein kinase C signalling pathway. Leffers, H., Madsen, P., Rasmussen, H.H., Honoré, B., Andersen, A.H., Walbum, E., Vandekerckhove, J., Celis, J.E. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Restoration of surface IgM-mediated apoptosis in an anti-IgM-resistant variant of WEHI-231 lymphoma cells by HS1, a protein-tyrosine kinase substrate. Fukuda, T., Kitamura, D., Taniuchi, I., Maekawa, Y., Benhamou, L.E., Sarthou, P., Watanabe, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Bisindolylmaleimide I Suppresses Fibroblast Growth Factor-mediated Activation of Erk MAP Kinase in Chondrocytes by Preventing Shp2 Association with the Frs2 and Gab1 Adaptor Proteins. Krejci, P., Masri, B., Salazar, L., Farrington-Rock, C., Prats, H., Thompson, L.M., Wilcox, W.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Chemoattractant receptor-induced phosphorylation of L-selectin. Haribabu, B., Steeber, D.A., Ali, H., Richardson, R.M., Snyderman, R., Tedder, T.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human malignant glioma cells by hypericin in vitro. Zhang, W., Anker, L., Law, R.E., Hinton, D.R., Gopalakrishna, R., Pu, Q., Gundimeda, U., Weiss, M.H., Couldwell, W.T. Clin. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Homozygosity mapping of Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome to chromosome 20p12.3-p13. Taylor, T.D., Litt, M., Kramer, P., Pandolfo, M., Angelini, L., Nardocci, N., Davis, S., Pineda, M., Hattori, H., Flett, P.J., Cilio, M.R., Bertini, E., Hayflick, S.J. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. HS1 protein is differentially expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient subsets with good or poor prognoses. Scielzo, C., Ghia, P., Conti, A., Bachi, A., Guida, G., Geuna, M., Alessio, M., Caligaris-Cappio, F. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of alpha tocopherol supplementation on monocyte function. Decreased lipid oxidation, interleukin 1 beta secretion, and monocyte adhesion to endothelium. Devaraj, S., Li, D., Jialal, I. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in Ras/Rac-induced disruption of the cortactin-actomyosin II complex and malignant transformation. He, H., Watanabe, T., Zhan, X., Huang, C., Schuuring, E., Fukami, K., Takenawa, T., Kumar, C.C., Simpson, R.J., Maruta, H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Intracellular pH and tyrosine phosphorylation but not calcium determine shear stress-induced nitric oxide production in native endothelial cells. Ayajiki, K., Kindermann, M., Hecker, M., Fleming, I., Busse, R. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Evaluation of 2,6-diamino-N-([1-(1-oxotridecyl)-2-piperidinyl]methyl)- hexanamide (NPC 15437), a protein kinase C inhibitor, as a modulator of P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance in vitro. Sha, E.C., Sha, M.C., Kaufmann, S.H. Investigational new drugs. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Malignant glioma sensitivity to radiotherapy, high-dose tamoxifen, and hypericin: corroborating clinical response in vitro: case report. Zhang, W., Hinton, D.R., Surnock, A.A., Couldwell, W.T. Neurosurgery (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Blocking of glioma proliferation in vitro and in vivo and potentiating the effects of BCNU and cisplatin: UCN-01, a selective protein kinase C inhibitor. Pollack, I.F., Kawecki, S., Lazo, J.S. J. Neurosurg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Association of a four-amino acid residue insertion polymorphism of the HS1 gene with systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular and functional analysis. Otsuka, J., Horiuchi, T., Yoshizawa, S., Tsukamoto, H., Sawabe, T., Kikuchi, Y., Himeji, D., Koyama, T., Mitoma, H., Watanabe, T., Harada, M. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Insulin signaling is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of H(2)O(2). Evidence for a role of H(2)O(2) in tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated insulin resistance. Hansen, L.L., Ikeda, Y., Olsen, G.S., Busch, A.K., Mosthaf, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Calcium-dependent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in A431 cells by low doses of ionizing radiation. Kavanagh, B.D., Dent, P., Schmidt-Ullrich, R.K., Chen, P., Mikkelsen, R.B. Radiat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Signal transduction pathway of the induction of cell motility in hamster pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell. Akagi, J., Egami, H., Kurizaki, T., Ohmachi, H., Ogawa, M. Invasion Metastasis (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular mechanism of thromboxane A(2)-induced platelet aggregation. Essential role for p2t(ac) and alpha(2a) receptors. Paul, B.Z., Jin, J., Kunapuli, S.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation of human RAG-1 gene. Kitagawa, T., Mori, K., Kishi, H., Tagoh, H., Nagata, T., Kurioka, H., Muraguchi, A. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Contrasting actions of staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, on human neutrophils and primary mouse epidermal cells. Sako, T., Tauber, A.I., Jeng, A.Y., Yuspa, S.H., Blumberg, P.M. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of an evolutionarily conserved far-upstream enhancer in the human alpha 2(I) collagen (COL1A2) gene. Antoniv, T.T., De Val, S., Wells, D., Denton, C.P., Rabe, C., de Crombrugghe, B., Ramirez, F., Bou-Gharios, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. IFN-gamma up-regulates the human C5a receptor (CD88) in myeloblastic U937 cells and related cell lines. Burg, M., Martin, U., Rheinheimer, C., Köhl, J., Bautsch, W., Böttger, E.C., Klos, A. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Hydrogen peroxide enhances shedding of type I soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor from pulmonary epithelial cells. Hino, T., Nakamura, H., Abe, S., Saito, H., Inage, M., Terashita, K., Kato, S., Tomoike, H. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. CD38 ligation results in activation of the Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase and the CD3-zeta/zeta-associated protein-70 signaling pathways in Jurkat T lymphocytes. Zubiaur, M., Izquierdo, M., Terhorst, C., Malavasi, F., Sancho, J. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Glucose-induced translocation of protein kinase C isoforms in rat-1 fibroblasts is paralleled by inhibition of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Berti, L., Mosthaf, L., Kroder, G., Kellerer, M., Tippmer, S., Mushack, J., Seffer, E., Seedorf, K., Häring, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Methylglyoxal downregulates Raf-1 protein through a ubiquitination-mediated mechanism. Du, J., Zeng, J., Ou, X., Ren, X., Cai, S. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Interferon-gamma-dependent induction of manganese superoxide dismutase activity of SV40-transformed human keratinocytes by anti-Fas antibody and by TNF-alpha. Takahashi, H., Hashimoto, Y., Kinouchi, M., Iizuka, H. J. Dermatol. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Rapid modulation of tumor necrosis factor membrane receptors by activators of protein kinase C. Scheurich, P., Unglaub, R., Maxeiner, B., Thoma, B., Zugmaier, G., Pfizenmaier, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential internalization of mammalian and non-mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors. Uncoupling of dynamin-dependent internalization from mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Hislop, J.N., Everest, H.M., Flynn, A., Harding, T., Uney, J.B., Troskie, B.E., Millar, R.P., McArdle, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. IkappaBalpha degradation and nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding are insufficient for interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced kappaB-dependent transcription. Requirement for an additional activation pathway. Bergmann, M., Hart, L., Lindsay, M., Barnes, P.J., Newton, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Priming of human neutrophil respiratory burst by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) involves partial phosphorylation of p47(phox). Dang, P.M., Dewas, C., Gaudry, M., Fay, M., Pedruzzi, E., Gougerot-Pocidalo, M.A., El Benna, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. The protein kinase C inhibitor H7 blocks phosphorylation of stathmin during TPA-induced growth inhibition of human pre-B leukemia REH6 cells. Duraj, J., Kovacikova, M., Sedlak, J., Koppel, J., Sobel, A., Chorvath, B. Leuk. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Ability of various bombesin receptor agonists and antagonists to alter intracellular signaling of the human orphan receptor BRS-3. Ryan, R.R., Weber, H.C., Hou, W., Sainz, E., Mantey, S.A., Battey, J.F., Coy, D.H., Jensen, R.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Homocysteine stimulates the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in endothelial cells leading to enhanced monocyte chemotaxis. Sung, F.L., Slow, Y.L., Wang, G., Lynn, E.G., O, K. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Constitutive NOS expression in cultured endothelial cells is elevated by fluid shear stress. Ranjan, V., Xiao, Z., Diamond, S.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Functional mapping of the cytoplasmic region of intercellular adhesion molecule-3 reveals important roles for serine residues. Hayflick, J.S., Stine, J., Fox, R., Hoekstra, D., Gallatin, W.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Role of tyrosine kinases, protein kinase C, and protein kinase A in the regulation of interferon-alpha production induced by herpes simplex virus type 1. Li, Q., Feldman, M., Harmon, C., Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Dialysate flow distribution in hollow fiber hemodialyzers with different dialysate pathway configurations. Ronco, C., Brendolan, A., Crepaldi, C., Rodighiero, M., Everard, P., Ballestri, M., Cappelli, G., Spittle, M., La Greca, G. The International journal of artificial organs. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. Purification and characterization of Heteroscorpine-1 (HS-1) toxin from Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom. Uawonggul, N., Thammasirirak, S., Chaveerach, A., Arkaravichien, T., Bunyatratchata, W., Ruangjirachuporn, W., Jearranaiprepame, P., Nakamura, T., Matsuda, M., Kobayashi, M., Hattori, S., Daduang, S. Toxicon (2007) [Pubmed]
  40. Update on the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Yam, J.C., Kwok, A.K.h. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine (2007) [Pubmed]
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