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Disease relevance of Punicaceae


High impact information on Punicaceae

  • Pomegranate from the tree Punica granatum possesses strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties [6].
  • OBJECTIVE: We analyzed, in healthy male volunteers and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (E(0)) mice, the effect of pomegranate juice consumption on lipoprotein oxidation, aggregation, and retention; macrophage atherogenicity; platelet aggregation; and atherosclerosis [7].
  • RESULTS: In humans, pomegranate juice consumption decreased LDL susceptibility to aggregation and retention and increased the activity of serum paraoxonase (an HDL-associated esterase that can protect against lipid peroxidation) by 20% [7].
  • DESIGN: Potent antioxidative effects of pomegranate juice against lipid peroxidation in whole plasma and in isolated lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) were assessed in humans and in E(0) mice after pomegranate juice consumption for </=2 and 14 wk, respectively [7].
  • Anthocyanin- and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Punicaceae


Biological context of Punicaceae

  • AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work aims to evaluate, in healthy humans, the bioavailability and metabolism of pomegranate juice ellagitannins, to assess their effect on several blood parameters (including cardiovascular risk disease markers) and to compare the antioxidant activity of punicalagin with that of the in vivo generated metabolites [12].
  • Furthermore, pomegranate polyphenols increase serum paraoxonase activity, resulting in the hydrolysis of lipid peroxides in oxidized lipoproteins and in atherosclerotic lesions [13].
  • In the present study, dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in punicic acid (9cis, 11trans, 13cis-conjugated linolenic acid; 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA) on lipid metabolism was investigated in obese, hyperlipidemic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats [14].
  • In a recent study, we showed that pomegranate fruit extract (PFE), through modulations in the cyclin kinase inhibitor-cyclin-dependent kinase machinery, resulted in inhibition of cell growth followed by apoptosis of highly aggressive human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells [15].

Anatomical context of Punicaceae


Associations of Punicaceae with chemical compounds

  • Mouse dams were provided ad libitum access to drinking water with pomegranate juice, at one of three doses, as well as plain water, sugar water, and vitamin C water controls during the last third of pregnancy and throughout the duration of litter suckling [16].
  • An aqueous system based on a TiO2 layer photosensitized by natural pigment(s) from pomegranate, shows relatively high stability under illumination with a quantum yield of 0.74 and a photovoltage of 0.46 V [2].
  • Pomegranate derived from the tree Punica granatum contains anthocyanins (such as delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin) and hydrolyzable tannins (such as punicalin, pedunculagin, punicalagin, gallagic and ellagic acid esters of glucose) and possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [20].
  • In a yeast estrogen screen (YES) lyophilized fresh pomegranate juice effected a 55% inhibition of the estrogenic activity of 17-beta-estradiol; whereas the lyophilized juice by itself displayed only minimal estrogenic action [21].
  • We have been unable to demonstrate an IgE-mediated mechanism (prick test, histamine release test and RAST with pomegranate were all negative) [22].

Gene context of Punicaceae

  • beta-Secretase (BACE1) inhibitors from pomegranate (Punica granatum) husk [23].
  • Punica granatum flower extract reduced the up-regulated cardiac mRNA expression of ET-1, ETA, inhibitor-kappaBbeta and c-jun, and normalized the down-regulated mRNA expression of inhibitor-kappaBalpha in Zucker diabetic fatty rats [24].
  • In this study, we investigated whether components of pomegranate could inhibit CYP3A-mediated drug metabolism [17].
  • Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: activation of PPAR-gamma and identification of an active component [25].
  • Ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria were most effective, with MICs for MRSA isolates of 0.05-0.4, 0.2-0.4 and 0.2-0.4 mg/mL, respectively, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Punicaceae


  1. Anaphylaxis to excipient mannitol: evidence for an immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism. Hegde, V.L., Venkatesh, Y.P. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Photosensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 films by pomegranate pigments with unusually high efficiency in aqueous medium. Dai, Q., Rabani, J. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Juice Provides an HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor and Candidate Topical Microbicide. Neurath, A.R., Strick, N., Li, Y.Y., Debnath, A.K. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Alpha-linolenic acid but not conjugated linolenic acid is hypocholesterolaemic in hamsters. Yang, L., Leung, K.Y., Cao, Y., Huang, Y., Ratnayake, W.M., Chen, Z.Y. Br. J. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Pomegranate juice supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 5-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Cerdá, B., Soto, C., Albaladejo, M.D., Martínez, P., Sánchez-Gascón, F., Tomás-Barberán, F., Espín, J.C. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Malik, A., Afaq, F., Sarfaraz, S., Adhami, V.M., Syed, D.N., Mukhtar, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Aviram, M., Dornfeld, L., Rosenblat, M., Volkova, N., Kaplan, M., Coleman, R., Hayek, T., Presser, D., Fuhrman, B. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Anthocyanin- and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice. Afaq, F., Saleem, M., Krueger, C.G., Reed, J.D., Mukhtar, H. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Anticancer activities of pomegranate extracts and genistein in human breast cancer cells. Jeune, M.A., Kumi-Diaka, J., Brown, J. Journal of medicinal food. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Differentiation-promoting activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Kawaii, S., Lansky, E.P. Journal of medicinal food. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Allergy to pomegranate (Punica granatum). Gaig, P., Botey, J., Gutiérrez, V., Pena, M., Eseverri, J.L., Marín, A. Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology : official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. The potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice are metabolised into bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives by the colonic microflora of healthy humans. Cerdá, B., Espín, J.C., Parra, S., Martínez, P., Tomás-Barberán, F.A. European journal of nutrition. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Pomegranate juice flavonoids inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation and cardiovascular diseases: studies in atherosclerotic mice and in humans. Aviram, M., Dornfeld, L., Kaplan, M., Coleman, R., Gaitini, D., Nitecki, S., Hofman, A., Rosenblat, M., Volkova, N., Presser, D., Attias, J., Hayek, T., Fuhrman, B. Drugs under experimental and clinical research. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in 9cis, 11trans, 13cis conjugated linolenic acid on lipid metabolism in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF rats. Arao, K., Wang, Y.M., Inoue, N., Hirata, J., Cha, J.Y., Nagao, K., Yanagita, T. Lipids in health and disease [electronic resource]. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Prostate cancer prevention through pomegranate fruit. Malik, A., Mukhtar, H. Cell Cycle (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Maternal dietary supplementation with pomegranate juice is neuroprotective in an animal model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Loren, D.J., Seeram, N.P., Schulman, R.N., Holtzman, D.M. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of pomegranate juice on human cytochrome p450 3A (CYP3A) and carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in rats. Hidaka, M., Okumura, M., Fujita, K., Ogikubo, T., Yamasaki, K., Iwakiri, T., Setoguchi, N., Arimori, K. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Pomegranate extract improves a depressive state and bone properties in menopausal syndrome model ovariectomized mice. Mori-Okamoto, J., Otawara-Hamamoto, Y., Yamato, H., Yoshimura, H. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Pomegranate as a cosmeceutical source: pomegranate fractions promote proliferation and procollagen synthesis and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-1 production in human skin cells. Aslam, M.N., Lansky, E.P., Varani, J. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Pomegranate fruit extract modulates UV-B-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and activation of nuclear factor kappa B in normal human epidermal keratinocytes paragraph sign. Afaq, F., Malik, A., Syed, D., Maes, D., Matsui, M.S., Mukhtar, H. Photochem. Photobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) for human breast cancer. Kim, N.D., Mehta, R., Yu, W., Neeman, I., Livney, T., Amichay, A., Poirier, D., Nicholls, P., Kirby, A., Jiang, W., Mansel, R., Ramachandran, C., Rabi, T., Kaplan, B., Lansky, E. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Adverse reaction to pomegranate ingestion. Igea, J.M., Cuesta, J., Cuevas, M., Elias, L.M., Marcos, C., Lazaro, M., Compaired, J.A. Allergy (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. beta-Secretase (BACE1) inhibitors from pomegranate (Punica granatum) husk. Kwak, H.M., Jeon, S.Y., Sohng, B.H., Kim, J.G., Lee, J.M., Lee, K.B., Jeong, H.H., Hur, J.M., Kang, Y.H., Song, K.S. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Pomegranate flower extract diminishes cardiac fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: modulation of cardiac endothelin-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways. Huang, T.H., Yang, Q., Harada, M., Li, G.Q., Yamahara, J., Roufogalis, B.D., Li, Y. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: activation of PPAR-gamma and identification of an active component. Huang, T.H., Peng, G., Kota, B.P., Li, G.Q., Yamahara, J., Roufogalis, B.D., Li, Y. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Voravuthikunchai, S.P., Kitpipit, L. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Breast cancer chemopreventive properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in a mouse mammary organ culture. Mehta, R., Lansky, E.P. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Repeated oral administration of high doses of the pomegranate ellagitannin punicalagin to rats for 37 days is not toxic. Cerdá, B., Cerón, J.J., Tomás-Barberán, F.A., Espín, J.C. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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