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Gene Review

PTX3  -  pentraxin 3, long

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Pentaxin-related protein PTX3, Pentraxin-related protein PTX3, TNF alpha-induced protein 5, TNFAIP5, TSG-14, ...
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Disease relevance of PTX3


High impact information on PTX3

  • Thus, the prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 is a multifunctional soluble pattern recognition receptor at the crossroads between innate immunity, inflammation, matrix deposition, and female fertility [5].
  • PTX3 is produced by a variety of cells and tissues, most notably dendritic cells and macrophages, in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement and inflammatory cytokines [5].
  • PTX3 acts as a functional ancestor of antibodies, recognizing microbes, activating complement, and facilitating pathogen recognition by phagocytes, hence playing a nonredundant role in resistance against selected pathogens [5].
  • In addition, PTX3 is essential in female fertility because it acts as a nodal point for the assembly of the cumulus oophorus hyaluronan-rich extracellular matrix [5].
  • The TLR2-activated functional program includes production of the long pentraxin PTX3, a soluble pattern recognition receptor involved in resistance against diverse pathogens [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of PTX3

  • High-volume ventilation significantly enhanced PTX3 expression in the lung, either alone or in combination with LPS or hemorrhage [7].

Biological context of PTX3


Anatomical context of PTX3


Associations of PTX3 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of PTX3


Regulatory relationships of PTX3


Other interactions of PTX3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTX3


  1. The long pentraxin PTX3 is synthesized in IgA glomerulonephritis and activates mesangial cells. Bussolati, B., Peri, G., Salvidio, G., Verzola, D., Mantovani, A., Camussi, G. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. TNFalpha-induced long pentraxin PTX3 expression in human lung epithelial cells via JNK. Han, B., Mura, M., Andrade, C.F., Okutani, D., Lodyga, M., dos Santos, C.C., Keshavjee, S., Matthay, M., Liu, M. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of a long pentraxin, PTX3, by monocytes exposed to the mycobacterial cell wall component lipoarabinomannan. Vouret-Craviari, V., Matteucci, C., Peri, G., Poli, G., Introna, M., Mantovani, A. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. PTX3 in small-vessel vasculitides: an independent indicator of disease activity produced at sites of inflammation. Fazzini, F., Peri, G., Doni, A., Dell'Antonio, G., Dal Cin, E., Bozzolo, E., D'Auria, F., Praderio, L., Ciboddo, G., Sabbadini, M.G., Manfredi, A.A., Mantovani, A., Querini, P.R. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Pentraxins at the crossroads between innate immunity, inflammation, matrix deposition, and female fertility. Garlanda, C., Bottazzi, B., Bastone, A., Mantovani, A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Complexity and complementarity of outer membrane protein A recognition by cellular and humoral innate immunity receptors. Jeannin, P., Bottazzi, B., Sironi, M., Doni, A., Rusnati, M., Presta, M., Maina, V., Magistrelli, G., Haeuw, J.F., Hoeffel, G., Thieblemont, N., Corvaia, N., Garlanda, C., Delneste, Y., Mantovani, A. Immunity (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. High-volume ventilation induces pentraxin 3 expression in multiple acute lung injury models in rats. Okutani, D., Han, B., Mura, M., Waddell, T.K., Keshavjee, S., Liu, M. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. PTX3 plays a key role in the organization of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix and in in vivo fertilization. Salustri, A., Garlanda, C., Hirsch, E., De Acetis, M., Maccagno, A., Bottazzi, B., Doni, A., Bastone, A., Mantovani, G., Beck Peccoz, P., Salvatori, G., Mahoney, D.J., Day, A.J., Siracusa, G., Romani, L., Mantovani, A. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Cytokine-induced gene expression at the crossroads of innate immunity, inflammation and fertility: TSG-6 and PTX3/TSG-14. Wisniewski, H.G., Vilcek, J. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. High-level expression and efficient purification of recombinant human long pentraxin PTX3 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Rivieccio, V., Esposito, A., Bellofiore, P., Palladino, P., Sassano, M., Colombo, M., Verdoliva, A. Protein Expr. Purif. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Inducible expression of PTX3, a new member of the pentraxin family, in human mononuclear phagocytes. Alles, V.V., Bottazzi, B., Peri, G., Golay, J., Introna, M., Mantovani, A. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Interleukin-1-inducible genes in endothelial cells. Cloning of a new gene related to C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component. Breviario, F., d'Aniello, E.M., Golay, J., Peri, G., Bottazzi, B., Bairoch, A., Saccone, S., Marzella, R., Predazzi, V., Rocchi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Multimer formation and ligand recognition by the long pentraxin PTX3. Similarities and differences with the short pentraxins C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component. Bottazzi, B., Vouret-Craviari, V., Bastone, A., De Gioia, L., Matteucci, C., Peri, G., Spreafico, F., Pausa, M., D'Ettorre, C., Gianazza, E., Tagliabue, A., Salmona, M., Tedesco, F., Introna, M., Mantovani, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. The long pentraxin PTX3 in human endometrium: regulation by steroids and trophoblast products. Popovici, R.M., Krause, M.S., Jauckus, J., Germeyer, A., Brum, I.S., Garlanda, C., Strowitzki, T., von Wolff, M. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  15. Pentraxin 3 inhibits fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent activation of smooth muscle cells in vitro and neointima formation in vivo. Camozzi, M., Zacchigna, S., Rusnati, M., Coltrini, D., Ramirez-Correa, G., Bottazzi, B., Mantovani, A., Giacca, M., Presta, M. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Interferon-gamma inhibits expression of the long pentraxin PTX3 in human monocytes. Polentarutti, N., Picardi, G., Basile, A., Cenzuales, S., Rivolta, A., Matteucci, C., Peri, G., Mantovani, A., Introna, M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Human herpesvirus 8-derived viral IL-6 induces PTX3 expression in Kaposi's sarcoma cells. Klouche, M., Brockmeyer, N., Knabbe, C., Rose-John, S. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression and production of the long pentraxin PTX3 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Luchetti, M.M., Piccinini, G., Mantovani, A., Peri, G., Matteucci, C., Pomponio, G., Fratini, M., Fraticelli, P., Sambo, P., Di Loreto, C., Doni, A., Introna, M., Gabrielli, A. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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