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Gene Review

FDX1  -  ferredoxin 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADX, Adrenal ferredoxin, Adrenodoxin, mitochondrial, FDX, Ferredoxin-1, ...
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Disease relevance of FDX1


Psychiatry related information on FDX1

  • We have analyzed by density functional theory the possible variations of the electronic properties of the [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, from the cyanobacterium Anabaena, depending on the redox-linked structural changes observed by X-ray diffraction at atomic resolution (Morales, R.; et al. Biochemistry 1999, 38, 15764-15773) [6].
  • Previously, learning and memory deficits have been observed following ADX-induced granule cell degeneration for tasks that require the hippocampus [7].

High impact information on FDX1

  • It is hypothesized that this heme, exposed to the cavity and a neighboring plastoquinone and close to the positive surface potential of the complex, can function in cyclic electron transport via anionic ferredoxin [8].
  • Import and localization experiments with a reconstituted chloroplast system show that the ferredoxin transit peptide directs mature plastocyanin away from its correct location, the thylakoid lumen, to the stroma [9].
  • In anaerobic organisms, the decarboxylation of pyruvate, a crucial component of intermediary metabolism, is catalyzed by the metalloenzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) resulting in the generation of low potential electrons and the subsequent acetylation of coenzyme A (CoA) [10].
  • The thin, flat FTR molecule makes the two-electron reduction possible by forming on one side a mixed disulfide with thioredoxin and by providing on the opposite side access to ferredoxin for delivering electrons [11].
  • Apicomplexan protists contain a single mitochondrial [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin sequence (mtFd) with a highly conserved C-terminal motif, VDGxxpxPH, that distinguishes it from other mtFd, which have heterogeneous C-termini [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of FDX1


Biological context of FDX1


Anatomical context of FDX1

  • Furthermore, a ferredoxin was isolated from the mitochondria and partly purified [22].
  • The cross-linked complex, added to thylakoids inhibited by the antibody against the reductase, catalyzes the H2O-cytochrome c photoreduction, which suggests that the ferredoxin moiety of the complex can interact with its electron donor in the photosynthetic chain [23].
  • Using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method, we studied the effects of adrenalectomy (ADX) and GC on the transcriptomes of mouse hypothalamus [24].
  • One of the mechanisms plants have developed for chloroplast protection against oxidative damage involves a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin, which has been proposed to be reduced by ferredoxin and plastid thioredoxins, Trx x and CDSP32, the FTR/Trx pathway [25].
  • Moreover, the Fed-1 iLRE substantially enhanced translation of reporter mRNAs in plant protoplasts expressing HSP101 [26].

Associations of FDX1 with chemical compounds

  • We discuss the recently solved first crystal structure of the vertebrate-type ferredoxin, the truncated adrenodoxin Adx(4-108), that offers the unique opportunity for better understanding of the structure-function relationships and stabilization of this protein, as well as of the molecular architecture of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins in general [27].
  • The apparent Km of the expressed protein for NADPH was determined to be 0.7 +/- 0.1 microM and the apparent Km for human ferredoxin was found to be 106 +/- 8 nM [28].
  • ADX combined with dexamethasone and salt treatment decreased circulating and cardiac aldosterone to barely detectable levels [1].
  • Both FAD286 and ADX reduced circulating and cardiac aldosterone levels [1].
  • Reducing equivalents that originate from NADH are transferred from ferredoxin reductase to ferredoxin and, in turn, to the terminal oxygenase, thus resulting in the activation of a dioxygen [2].

Physical interactions of FDX1

  • Site-specific mutations in human ferredoxin that affect binding to ferredoxin reductase and cytochrome P450scc [18].
  • No ternary complexes with Anabaena flavodoxin or horse heart cytochrome c were formed, suggesting that the binding site on the enzyme is the same for ferredoxin and flavodoxin and that ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase and cytochrome c bind at a common site on ferredoxin [14].
  • The nuclear-encoded NDUFS8 (TYKY) subunit of complex I is highly conserved among eukaryotes and prokaryotes and contains two 4Fe4S ferredoxin consensus patterns, which have long been thought to provide the binding site for the iron-sulfur cluster N-2 [29].
  • Role of a cluster of hydrophobic residues near the FAD cofactor in Anabaena PCC 7119 ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase for optimal complex formation and electron transfer to ferredoxin [30].
  • Protein X from Azotobacter vinelandii has recently been shown to be either a NADPH oxidase or a NADP+ reductase that interacts specifically with ferredoxin I [31].

Enzymatic interactions of FDX1

  • Chlorophyll photosensitized electron transfer reactions in lipid vesicles: enhancement in yield of vectorial electron transfer across the bilayer from reduced cytochrome c to oxidized ferredoxin by addition of valinomycin plus potassium ion [32].
  • The deletion of the N-terminal region up to Thr36 of the native reductase (Mr 35,000) produced a truncated form (Mr about 31,000) which had full diaphorase activity but lost the capacity to catalyze the ferredoxin-dependent reaction [33].

Regulatory relationships of FDX1

  • In addition, delta 6 16:0-ACP desaturase activity in T. alata endosperm extracts was dependent on the presence of ferredoxin and molecular oxygen and was stimulated by catalase [34].
  • At physiological pH values, this places the potential of the species titrated between that of ferredoxin and NADPH and thus in the right potential range to be regulating the redox poise of the ferredoxin pool [35].
  • A DNA fragment encoding the mature form of human ferredoxin was cloned into an expression vector under control of the T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system [36].

Other interactions of FDX1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FDX1


  1. Aldosterone synthase inhibitor ameliorates angiotensin II-induced organ damage. Fiebeler, A., Nussberger, J., Shagdarsuren, E., Rong, S., Hilfenhaus, G., Al-Saadi, N., Dechend, R., Wellner, M., Meiners, S., Maser-Gluth, C., Jeng, A.Y., Webb, R.L., Luft, F.C., Muller, D.N. Circulation (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Crystal structure of NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase component in biphenyl dioxygenase. Senda, T., Yamada, T., Sakurai, N., Kubota, M., Nishizaki, T., Masai, E., Fukuda, M., Mitsuidagger, Y. J. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Kinetic, spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis adrenodoxin reductase homologue FprA. McLean, K.J., Scrutton, N.S., Munro, A.W. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Structure-function studies of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins. Holden, H.M., Jacobson, B.L., Hurley, J.K., Tollin, G., Oh, B.H., Skjeldal, L., Chae, Y.K., Cheng, H., Xia, B., Markley, J.L. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Isolation, characterization, and biological activity of ferredoxin-NAD+ reductase from the methane oxidizer Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Chen, Y.P., Yoch, D.C. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. An approach based on quantum chemistry calculations and structural analysis of a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin that reveal a redox-linked switch in the electron-transfer process to the Fd-NADP+ reductase. Morales, R., Frey, M., Mouesca, J.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Adrenalectomy-induced granule cell degeneration in the hippocampus causes spatial memory deficits that are not reversed by chronic treatment with corticosterone or fluoxetine. Spanswick, S.C., Epp, J.R., Keith, J.R., Sutherland, R.J. Hippocampus (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Transmembrane traffic in the cytochrome b6f complex. Cramer, W.A., Zhang, H., Yan, J., Kurisu, G., Smith, J.L. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of the transit peptide in the routing of precursors toward different chloroplast compartments. Smeekens, S., Bauerle, C., Hageman, J., Keegstra, K., Weisbeek, P. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Crystal structure of the free radical intermediate of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Chabrière, E., Vernède, X., Guigliarelli, B., Charon, M.H., Hatchikian, E.C., Fontecilla-Camps, J.C. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Redox signaling in chloroplasts: cleavage of disulfides by an iron-sulfur cluster. Dai, S., Schwendtmayer, C., Schürmann, P., Ramaswamy, S., Eklund, H. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Eukaryotic genomes contain a [2Fez.sbnd;2S] ferredoxin isoform with a conserved C-terminal sequence motif. Seeber, F. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Purification, characterization, and crystallization of the components of the nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase enzyme systems. Parales, R.E., Huang, R., Yu, C.L., Parales, J.V., Lee, F.K., Lessner, D.J., Ivkovic-Jensen, M.M., Liu, W., Friemann, R., Ramaswamy, S., Gibson, D.T. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Complex formation between ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase from Anabaena PCC 7119: cross-linking studies. Pueyo, J.J., Revilla, C., Mayhew, S.G., Gómez-Moreno, C. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of human ferredoxin and assembly of the [2Fe-2S] center in Escherichia coli. Coghlan, V.M., Vickery, L.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Site-directed mutagenesis of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I: cysteine ligation of the [4Fe-4S] cluster with protein rearrangement is preferred over serine ligation. Shen, B., Jollie, D.R., Diller, T.C., Stout, C.D., Stephens, P.J., Burgess, B.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. In Azotobacter vinelandii, the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex binds fpr promoter region DNA and ferredoxin I. Regnström, K., Sauge-Merle, S., Chen, K., Burgess, B.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Site-specific mutations in human ferredoxin that affect binding to ferredoxin reductase and cytochrome P450scc. Coghlan, V.M., Vickery, L.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of human placental ferredoxin. Mittal, S., Zhu, Y.Z., Vickery, L.E. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Structure, sequence, chromosomal location, and evolution of the human ferredoxin gene family. Chang, C.Y., Wu, D.A., Mohandas, T.K., Chung, B.C. DNA Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Multinuclear magnetic resonance and mutagenesis studies of the histidine residues of human mitochondrial ferredoxin. Xia, B., Cheng, H., Skjeldal, L., Coghlan, V.M., Vickery, L.E., Markley, J.L. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Side chain hydroxylation of C27-steroids and vitamin D3 by a cytochrome P-450 enzyme system isolated from human liver mitochondria. Oftebro, H., Saarem, K., Björkhem, I., Pedersen, J.I. J. Lipid Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. A cross-linked complex between ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase. Zanetti, G., Aliverti, A., Curti, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulation of hypothalamic gene expression by glucocorticoid: implications for energy homeostasis. Nishida, Y., Yoshioka, M., St-Amand, J. Physiol. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Rice NTRC Is a High-Efficiency Redox System for Chloroplast Protection against Oxidative Damage. Pérez-Ruiz, J.M., Spínola, M.C., Kirchsteiger, K., Moreno, J., Sahrawy, M., Cejudo, F.J. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Heat shock protein HSP101 binds to the Fed-1 internal light regulator y element and mediates its high translational activity. Ling, J., Wells, D.R., Tanguay, R.L., Dickey, L.F., Thompson, W.F., Gallie, D.R. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Adrenodoxin: structure, stability, and electron transfer properties. Grinberg, A.V., Hannemann, F., Schiffler, B., Müller, J., Heinemann, U., Bernhardt, R. Proteins (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression and characterization of human mitochondrial ferredoxin reductase in Escherichia coli. Brandt, M.E., Vickery, L.E. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. The first nuclear-encoded complex I mutation in a patient with Leigh syndrome. Loeffen, J., Smeitink, J., Triepels, R., Smeets, R., Schuelke, M., Sengers, R., Trijbels, F., Hamel, B., Mullaart, R., van den Heuvel, L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of a cluster of hydrophobic residues near the FAD cofactor in Anabaena PCC 7119 ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase for optimal complex formation and electron transfer to ferredoxin. Martínez-Júlvez, M., Nogués, I., Faro, M., Hurley, J.K., Brodie, T.B., Mayoral, T., Sanz-Aparicio, J., Hermoso, J.A., Stankovich, M.T., Medina, M., Tollin, G., Gómez-Moreno, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Diffraction quality crystals of protein X from Azotobacter vinelandii. Diller, T.C., Shaw, A., Isas, J.M., Burgess, B.K., Stout, C.D. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Chlorophyll photosensitized electron transfer reactions in lipid vesicles: enhancement in yield of vectorial electron transfer across the bilayer from reduced cytochrome c to oxidized ferredoxin by addition of valinomycin plus potassium ion. Zhao, Z.G., Tollin, G. Photochem. Photobiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Structure-function relationship in spinach ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase as studied by limited proteolysis. Gadda, G., Aliverti, A., Ronchi, S., Zanetti, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. delta 6 Hexadecenoic acid is synthesized by the activity of a soluble delta 6 palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase in Thunbergia alata endosperm. Cahoon, E.B., Cranmer, A.M., Shanklin, J., Ohlrogge, J.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Thiol regulation of the thylakoid electron transport chain--a missing link in the regulation of photosynthesis? Johnson, G.N. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Human ferredoxin: overproduction in Escherichia coli, reconstitution in vitro, and spectroscopic studies of iron-sulfur cluster ligand cysteine-to-serine mutants. Xia, B., Cheng, H., Bandarian, V., Reed, G.H., Markley, J.L. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Charge pair interactions stabilizing ferredoxin-ferredoxin reductase complexes. Identification by complementary site-specific mutations. Brandt, M.E., Vickery, L.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Functional sites in protein families uncovered via an objective and automated graph theoretic approach. Wangikar, P.P., Tendulkar, A.V., Ramya, S., Mali, D.N., Sarawagi, S. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Evidence for fast and discriminatory electron transfer of proteins at modified gold electrodes. Bond, A.M., Hill, H.A., Page, D.J., Psalti, I.S., Walton, N.J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. Comparison of the immunochemical properties of human placental and bovine adrenal cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme complex. Usanov, S.A., Honkakoski, P., Lang, M.A., Pasanen, M., Pelkonen, O., Raunio, H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Essential histidyl residues of ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase revealed by diethyl pyrocarbonate inactivation. Carrillo, N., Vallejos, R.H. Biochemistry (1983) [Pubmed]
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