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MeSH Review

Sampling Studies

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Disease relevance of Sampling Studies

  • Interviews with a probability sample of 617 adults in the Chicago area indicated widespread lack of information about major probable causes of heart attacks in persons younger than 60 years: 28% named cigarette smoking, 21% named high blood pressure, and 13% named cholesterol or fat in the diet or blood [1].
  • PURPOSE: This manuscript utilized the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS), a national probability sample of the U.S. non-institutionalized population, to examine whether the intake of folate at baseline is associated with colon cancer risk [2].
  • The investigators compared subjects from a national probability sample of 2,864 respondents from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS, 1996) with 9,810 subjects from Wave 1 (1992) of the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) [3].

Psychiatry related information on Sampling Studies

  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1995, 1997, and 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys which employed national probability samples of students in grades 9-12 (ages 14-18 years) [4].
  • The relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and serum ascorbate was examined in the Northern Ireland Health and Activity Survey. This was a cross sectional population study (n = 1600), using a two stage probability sample, of the population of N [5].
  • The data used derived from National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse (1991-1993), multistage area probability samples of the US population 12 years old and over, and anonymous structured household interviews, considering subjects who were last-month smokers (12,550 White, 4903 Black, 4839 Hispanic) [6].

High impact information on Sampling Studies

  • METHODS: We measured CRP in 2,749 white and black subjects ages 30 to 65 participating in the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic, population-based, probability sample, and compared levels of CRP between different race and gender groups [7].
  • DESIGN: A probability sample survey of residents aged 16-44 years in Britain, with alternate assignment of addresses to interview by CASI (462) or PAPI (439) [8].
  • Frequent sampling studies in the NL men demonstrated that this rise in mean LH levels, after aromatase blockade, reflected an increase in both LH pulse frequency (10.2 +/- 0.9 to 14.0 +/- 1.0 pulses/24 h, P < 0.05) and pulse amplitude (5.7 +/- 0.7 to 8.4 +/- 0.7 IU/L, P < 0.001) [9].
  • On day 12 of pulsatile GnRH administration, plasma E2 levels increased, and LH and FSH pulses followed each GnRH pulse during the frequent sampling study [10].
  • The timing of the studies was prospectively determined by serial ultrasound and previous cycle history, whereas measurements of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone in daily blood samples were used retrospectively to locate the frequent sampling study in relation to the day of ovulation in each individual [11].

Biological context of Sampling Studies

  • The frequent sampling studies were divided into late follicular phase (LFP; days -4 to -2) and early, mid-, and late portions of the midcycle surge (days -1 to 1) in relation to the 95% confidence limits of the LH peak derived from daily samples in 69 normal ovulatory women [11].
  • Genotype at APOE was determined for 37 of these cases and independently, for a similarly aged probability sample of 344 men from the same registry [12].
  • Taken together, this preliminary single time-point sampling study infers that some parameters are activated (CD69) while others are attenuated (phagocytosis, TGF-beta1) according to the environmental light intensity, dim vs. bright, in women adhering to a standardized routine in the absence of thermal stress [13].

Anatomical context of Sampling Studies


Associations of Sampling Studies with chemical compounds

  • In the frequent sampling study, LH and FSH were measured in all samples, and estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) were measured in 2-h pools [16].
  • A combination thermodynamic perturbation and umbrella sampling study predicts two free energy wells for the rotational isomerization of the variant-3 scorpion neurotoxin tryptophan-47 indole side chain [17].
  • The associations between intake of coffee or decaffeinated coffee and plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein measurements were examined in a probability sample from a defined community of adults [18].
  • Particular emphasis is placed on the contribution of frequent sampling studies of gonadotropin secretion and genetic studies to understanding the pathophysiology and clinical heterogeneity of isolated GnRH deficiency in humans [19].
  • METHODS: Data came from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey-1992, a household probability sample representative of those 18 years of age and older in the contiguous US Response rate was 92% [20].

Gene context of Sampling Studies

  • The sampling studies were carried out before GH therapy was initiated and 48 h after rhGH was discontinued after 12 months of therapy [21].
  • In a timed sampling study, using a slowly stirred oxygen depletion culture model, we have demonstrated that the hspX mRNA that codes for Acr protein as well as the protein itself is induced just as the bacilli enter the microaerophilic NRP stage 1 (NRP-1) [22].
  • Prevalences of anemia were estimated by two methods for 742 Black and 3,074 White nonpregnant women of childbearing age drawn from a large probability sample of the United States civilian noninstitutionalized population (NHANES I) [23].
  • METHOD: Parents/guardians of a national probability sample of 9,574 children and adolescents 4 to 17 years of age were administered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to assess emotional and behavioral problems within the past 1 month [24].
  • A sampling study of bedside nursing activity in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit. Part 2. The effect of time and shift on the nursing workload [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sampling Studies


  1. Public beliefs about causes and prevention of heart attacks. Shekelle, R.B., Liu, S.C. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Nutritional status of folate and colon cancer risk: evidence from NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Su, L.J., Arab, L. Annals of epidemiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. A socioeconomic profile of older adults with HIV. Joyce, G.F., Goldman, D.P., Leibowitz, A.A., Alpert, A., Bao, Y. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Cigarette acquisition and proof of age among US high school students who smoke. Jones, S.E., Sharp, D.J., Husten, C.G., Crossett, L.S. Tobacco control. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Ascorbate and exercise in the Northern Ireland population. Sharpe, P.C., MacAuley, D., McCrum, E.E., Stott, G., Evans, A.E., Mulholland, C., Boreham, C.A., Duly, E., Trinick, T.R. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Extent of smoking and nicotine dependence in the United States: 1991-1993. Kandel, D.B., Chen, K. Nicotine Tob. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Race and gender differences in C-reactive protein levels. Khera, A., McGuire, D.K., Murphy, S.A., Stanek, H.G., Das, S.R., Vongpatanasin, W., Wians, F.H., Grundy, S.M., de Lemos, J.A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of computer-assisted self-interviews on reporting of sexual HIV risk behaviours in a general population sample: a methodological experiment. Johnson, A.M., Copas, A.J., Erens, B., Mandalia, S., Fenton, K., Korovessis, C., Wellings, K., Field, J. AIDS (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Aromatase inhibition in the human male reveals a hypothalamic site of estrogen feedback. Hayes, F.J., Seminara, S.B., Decruz, S., Boepple, P.A., Crowley, W.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Even after priming with ovarian steroids or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration, naltrexone is unable to induce ovulation in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Couzinet, B., Young, J., Brailly, S., Chanson, P., Schaison, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. The midcycle gonadotropin surge in normal women occurs in the face of an unchanging gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency. Adams, J.M., Taylor, A.E., Schoenfeld, D.A., Crowley, W.F., Hall, J.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Risk of Alzheimer disease with the epsilon4 allele for apolipoprotein E in a population-based study of men aged 62-73 years. Breitner, J.C., Jarvik, G.P., Plassman, B.L., Saunders, A.M., Welsh, K.A. Alzheimer disease and associated disorders. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of dim and bright light exposure on some immunological parameters measured under thermal neutral conditions. Hyun, K.J., Kondo, M., Koh, T., Tokura, H., Tamotsu, S., Oishi, T. Chronobiol. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The pharmacological profile of iloperidone, a novel atypical antipsychotic agent. Szewczak, M.R., Corbett, R., Rush, D.K., Wilmot, C.A., Conway, P.G., Strupczewski, J.T., Cornfeldt, M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Concentrations of corticotropin-releasing hormone, norepinephrine, MHPG, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and tryptophan in the cerebrospinal fluid of alcoholic patients: serial sampling studies. Geracioti, T.D., Loosen, P.T., Ebert, M.H., Ekhator, N.N., Burns, D., Nicholson, W.E., Orth, D.N. Neuroendocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and follicle-stimulating hormone dynamics during the luteal-follicular transition. Hall, J.E., Schoenfeld, D.A., Martin, K.A., Crowley, W.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Tryptophan-47 rotational isomerization in variant-3 scorpion neurotoxin. A combination thermodynamic perturbation and umbrella sampling study. Haydock, C., Sharp, J.C., Prendergast, F.G. Biophys. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Coffee, plasma cholesterol, and lipoproteins. A population study in an adult community. Mathias, S., Garland, C., Barrett-Connor, E., Wingard, D.L. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Hayes, F.J., Seminara, S.B., Crowley, W.F. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Familial transmission of alcoholism among nonalcoholics and mild, severe, and dyssocial subtypes of alcoholism. Johnson , E.O., Pickens, R.W. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Preservation of physiological growth hormone (GH) secretion in idiopathic short stature after recombinant GH therapy. Wu, R.H., St Louis, Y., DiMartino-Nardi, J., Wesoly, S., Sobel, E.H., Sherman, B., Saenger, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Microaerophilic induction of the alpha-crystallin chaperone protein homologue (hspX) mRNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Desjardin, L.E., Hayes, L.G., Sohaskey, C.D., Wayne, L.G., Eisenach, K.D. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Prevalences of anemia and iron deficiency anemia in Black and White women in the United States estimated by two methods. Meyers, L.D., Habicht, J.P., Johnson, C.L., Brownie, C. American journal of public health. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Revisiting the factor structure of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire: United States, 2001. Dickey, W.C., Blumberg, S.J. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. A sampling study of bedside nursing activity in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit. Part 2. The effect of time and shift on the nursing workload. Crew, A.D., Stoodley, K.D., Old, S., Unsworth, G.D., Thompson, M.J. Intensive care medicine. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Drug use patterns and infection with sexually transmissible agents among young adults in a high-risk neighbourhood in New York City. Friedman, S.R., Flom, P.L., Kottiri, B.J., Zenilman, J., Curtis, R., Neaigus, A., Sandoval, M., Quinn, T., Des Jarlais, D.C. Addiction (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Louisiana health and nutrition survey. Fontham, E.T., Powers, C., Wall, J.L. The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society : official organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society. (1996) [Pubmed]
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