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MeSH Review

Northern Ireland

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Disease relevance of Northern Ireland


Psychiatry related information on Northern Ireland


High impact information on Northern Ireland


Chemical compound and disease context of Northern Ireland


Biological context of Northern Ireland


Anatomical context of Northern Ireland

  • Using a combination of PCR-SSOP and serologically determined types for 5000 individuals on the local bone marrow registry, HLA-B frequencies for the Northern Ireland population have been calculated [25].
  • Polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes typing methods have been applied to 1000 individuals from the Northern Ireland population to give human leukocyte antigen DRB1 (HLA-DRB1) allele assignment [26].
  • SETTING: Community based study in Northern Ireland. SUBJECTS: From a screening sample of 101 healthy elderly people, 52 had sub-optimal riboflavin status (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient, EGRAC>or=1.20) and were invited to participate in the study [27].
  • DNA sequencing of cloned TK fragments from the sacral ganglia of two feral swine, showed only one nucleotide difference between the two fragments and extensive sequence homology to fragment sequences from various domestic swine PRV strains from China, Northern Ireland, and the USA [28].

Associations of Northern Ireland with chemical compounds

  • Four centers, Northern Ireland (coordinator), England, Denmark, and France, using different experimental protocols, examined the effect of Cu supplementation (3 or 6 mg/d) on top of normal Cu dietary intakes or Cu-controlled diets (0.7/1.6/6.0 mg/d), on Cu-mediated and peroxynitrite-initiated LDL oxidation in apparently healthy volunteers [29].
  • This effect, which was essentially due to wine consumption in France and to nonwine consumption in Northern Ireland, was largely attenuated by the introduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol into the model [30].
  • Analysis of 828 servicemen killed or injured by explosion in Northern Ireland 1970-84: the Hostile Action Casualty System [31].
  • Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci in Northern Ireland: first reported outbreak [32].
  • Increased incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance in penicillin-resistant pneumococci in Northern Ireland [33].

Gene context of Northern Ireland

  • The results from this study suggest that possession of the BCHE K allele constitutes a significant risk for AD in the Northern Ireland population and, furthermore, this risk increases with increasing age [6].
  • A single base deletion (211delG) in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene was shown to cause familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in a large family from Northern Ireland. Twenty-four of 52 family members tested had this mutation, 13 of which were newly diagnosed [34].
  • The results from this study suggest that individuals who have the 9,9 genotype of the VLDL-R gene are at increased risk of AD in Northern Ireland [35].
  • We have genotyped both LRP polymorphisms and two polymorphisms in the A2M gene in a large group of clinically well-defined AD cases and controls from the relatively genetically homogeneous Northern Ireland population [36].
  • We have studied hair keratin genes and clinical features in 18 unrelated pedigrees of monilethrix from Germany, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Portugal, in 13 of which mutations have not previously been identified [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Northern Ireland

  • The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of more than 180 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products, seized by H.M. Customs and Excise on entry into Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1984-1989, has been determined by gas chromatography [38].
  • This cross-sectional study of 400 sera from a randomly selected adult population in Northern Ireland, using a microimmunofluorescence assay, demonstrated high overall seropositivity (70%) for IgG Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in developed populations [39].
  • POPULATION AND SETTING: A total of 37,512 women from 276 NHS and 145 private hospitals in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, originally recruited to compare the outcomes of endometrial destruction with those of hysterectomy [40].


  1. Cystic fibrosis in Northern Ireland. Nevin, G.B., Nevin, N.C., Redmond, A.O. J. Med. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutations in keratin K9 in kindreds with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and epidemiology in Northern Ireland. Covello, S.P., Irvine, A.D., McKenna, K.E., Munro, C.S., Nevin, N.C., Smith, F.J., Uitto, J., McLean, W.H. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Associations of fibrinogen, factor VII and PAI-1 with baseline findings among 10,500 male participants in a prospective study of myocardial infarction--the PRIME Study. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. Scarabin, P.Y., Aillaud, M.F., Amouyel, P., Evans, A., Luc, G., Ferrières, J., Arveiler, D., Juhan-Vague, I. Thromb. Haemost. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Construction and characterization of deletion mutants of pseudorabies virus: a new generation of 'live' vaccines. Quint, W., Gielkens, A., Van Oirschot, J., Berns, A., Cuypers, H.T. J. Gen. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Premarket evaluation of the POCkit HSV-2 type-specific serologic test in culture-documented cases of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 [see comment]. Ashley, R.L., Wald, A., Eagleton, M. Sexually transmitted diseases. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Butyrylcholinesterase K variant is genetically associated with late onset Alzheimer's disease in Northern Ireland. McIlroy, S.P., Crawford, V.L., Dynan, K.B., McGleenon, B.M., Vahidassr, M.D., Lawson, J.T., Passmore, A.P. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The epidemiology of Huntington's disease in Northern Ireland. Morrison, P.J., Johnston, W.P., Nevin, N.C. J. Med. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) and exercise. Sharpe, P.C., Duly, E.B., MacAuley, D., McCrum, E.E., Mulholland, C., Stott, G., Boreham, C.A., Kennedy, G., Evans, A.E., Trinick, T.R. QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease: differential effects in France and Northern Ireland. The PRIME study. Marques-Vidal, P., Montaye, M., Arveiler, D., Evans, A., Bingham, A., Ruidavets, J.B., Amouyel, P., Haas, B., Yarnell, J., Ducimetière, P., Ferrières, J. European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Fatal dextropropoxyphene poisoning in Northern Ireland. Review of 30 cases. Carson, D.J. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Polymorphisms in the interferon-gamma/interleukin-26 gene region contribute to sex bias in susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Vandenbroeck, K., Cunningham, S., Goris, A., Alloza, I., Heggarty, S., Graham, C., Bell, A., Rooney, M. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular heterogeneity in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA in Australia and Northern Ireland: nine novel mutations including T312S, a common allele that confers a mild phenotype. Yamada, N., Fukuda, S., Tomatsu, S., Muller, V., Hopwood, J.J., Nelson, J., Kato, Z., Yamagishi, A., Sukegawa, K., Kondo, N., Orii, T. Hum. Mutat. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutation characterization of CFTR gene in 206 Northern Irish CF families: thirty mutations, including two novel, account for approximately 94% of CF chromosomes. Hughes, D.J., Hill, A.J., Macek, M., Redmond, A.O., Nevin, N.C., Graham, C.A. Hum. Mutat. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Epidemiology of childhood IDDM in Northern Ireland 1989-1994: low incidence in areas with highest population density and most household crowding. Northern Ireland Diabetes Study Group. Patterson, C.C., Carson, D.J., Hadden, D.R. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. A comparison of pulmonary exacerbations with single and multiple organisms in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic Burkholderia cepacia infection. Mc Manus, T.E., Moore, J.E., Crowe, M., Dunbar, K., Elborn, J.S. J. Infect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Vitamin E and exercise in the Northern Ireland population. Duly, E.B., Trinick, T.R., Kennedy, D.G., Macauley, D., McCrum, E., Stott, G., Evans, A.E., Sweeney, K., Boreham, C.A., Sharpe, P. Ann. Clin. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Cholesterol screening and family history of vascular disease. Primrose, E.D., Savage, J.M., Boreham, C.A., Cran, G.W., Strain, J.J. Arch. Dis. Child. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Increased ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae in Northern Ireland hospitals. Murphy, P.G., Craig, I. Irish journal of medical science. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: laboratory detection methods in use in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Humphreys, H., Glynn, G., Rossney, A., McDonald, P., Johnson, H., McDonnell, R., Doyle, D., Mitchell, E., Burd, M. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. The importance of plasma apolipoprotein E concentration in addition to its common polymorphism on inter-individual variation in lipid levels: results from Apo Europe. Haddy, N., De Bacquer, D., Chemaly, M.M., Maurice, M., Ehnholm, C., Evans, A., Sans, S., Do Carmo Martins, M., De Backer, G., Siest, G., Visvikis, S. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic analysis of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serogroup O103 strains by molecular typing of virulence and housekeeping genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Beutin, L., Kaulfuss, S., Herold, S., Oswald, E., Schmidt, H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Frequency of HLA-B alleles in a Caucasoid population determined by a two-stage PCR-SSOP typing strategy. Middleton, D., Williams, F., Hamill, M.A., Meenagh, A. Hum. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular diversity of the HLA-C gene identified in a caucasian population. Williams, F., Meenagh, A., Patterson, C., Middleton, D. Hum. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. HLA-DR and DQ DNA genotyping in multiple sclerosis patients in Northern Ireland. Cullen, C.G., Middleton, D., Savage, D.A., Hawkins, S. Hum. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Application of an HLA-B PCR-SSOP typing method to a bone marrow donor registry. Williams, F., Mawhinney, H., Middleton, D. Bone Marrow Transplant. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. High resolution HLA-DRB1 identification of a Caucasian population. Williams, F., Meenagh, A., Single, R., McNally, M., Kelly, P., Nelson, M.P., Meyer, D., Lancaster, A., Thomson, G., Middleton, D. Hum. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of riboflavin supplementation on plasma homocysteine in elderly people with low riboflavin status. McKinley, M.C., McNulty, H., McPartlin, J., Strain, J.J., Scott, J.M. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Potential sites of virus latency associated with indigenous pseudorabies viruses in feral swine. Romero, C.H., Meade, P.N., Homer, B.L., Shultz, J.E., Lollis, G. J. Wildl. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Copper supplementation in humans does not affect the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to in vitro induced oxidation (FOODCUE project). Turley, E., McKeown, A., Bonham, M.P., O'Connor, J.M., Chopra, M., Harvey, L.J., Majsak-Newman, G., Fairweather-Tait, S.J., Bügel, S., Sandström, B., Rock, E., Mazur, A., Rayssiguier, Y., Strain, J.J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Alcohol consumption and myocardial infarction: a case-control study in France and Northern Ireland. Marques-Vidal, P., Ducimetière, P., Evans, A., Cambou, J.P., Arveiler, D. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Analysis of 828 servicemen killed or injured by explosion in Northern Ireland 1970-84: the Hostile Action Casualty System. Mellor, S.G., Cooper, G.J. The British journal of surgery. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci in Northern Ireland: first reported outbreak. Rizkalla, E.A., Moore, J.E., Marshall, S.A., Murphy, P.G. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Increased incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance in penicillin-resistant pneumococci in Northern Ireland. Goldsmith, C.E., Moore, J.E., Murphy, P.G., Ambler, J.E. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. A novel single base deletion in the LDLR gene (211delG): Effect on serum lipid profiles and the influence of other genetic polymorphisms in the ACE, APOE and APOB genes. Ward, A.J., O'Kane, M., Nicholls, D.P., Young, I.S., Nevin, N.C., Graham, C.A. Atherosclerosis (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Risk of Alzheimer's disease is associated with a very low-density lipoprotein receptor genotype in Northern Ireland. McIlroy, S.P., Vahidassr, M.D., Savage, D.A., Patterson, C.C., Lawson, J.T., Passmore, A.P. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Common polymorphisms in LRP and A2M do not affect genetic risk for Alzheimer disease in Northern Ireland. McIlroy, S.P., Dynan, K.B., Vahidassr, D.J., Lawson, J.T., Patterson, C.C., Passmore, P. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Identification of novel mutations in basic hair keratins hHb1 and hHb6 in monilethrix: implications for protein structure and clinical phenotype. Korge, B.P., Hamm, H., Jury, C.S., Traupe, H., Irvine, A.D., Healy, E., Birch-MacHin, M., Rees, J.L., Messenger, A.G., Holmes, S.C., Parry, D.A., Munro, C.S. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Variation in the THC content of illicitly imported Cannabis products--1984-1989. Pitts, J.E., O'Neil, P.J., Leggo, K.P. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  39. Epidemiology of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a randomly selected population in a developed country. O'Neill, C., Murray, L.J., Ong, G.M., O'Reilly, D.P., Evans, A.E., Bamford, K.B. Epidemiol. Infect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Severe complications of hysterectomy: the VALUE study. McPherson, K., Metcalfe, M.A., Herbert, A., Maresh, M., Casbard, A., Hargreaves, J., Bridgman, S., Clarke, A. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (2004) [Pubmed]
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