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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Microfilaria


High impact information on Microfilaria

  • Both ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine promptly reduced skin microfilaria counts, but only in the ivermectin group did counts remain significantly lower (P less than 0.005) than in the placebo group at the end of six months of observation [6].
  • As few as one microfilaria per 10(4) platelets completely inhibited aggregation of platelets induced by thrombin, collagen, arachidonic acid, or ionophore A23187 [7].
  • In contrast, skin microfilaria counts in the flubendazole group fell slowly, but by 6 and 12 months were lower than in the DEC group (at 12 months 0.2 vs 7.3 mf/mg, p less than 0.001) [8].
  • Levamisole alone had no significant effect on microfilaria counts [9].
  • DEC produced the most rapid fall in skin microfilaria counts, but by 6 months the two groups receiving mebendazole showed similar or slightly greater reductions [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Microfilaria

  • Although it is impractical, prolonged treatment with doxycycline significantly reduces the numbers of microfilaria in circulation, which is an important strategy to control transmission of filariasis by mosquito vectors [10].

Biological context of Microfilaria


Associations of Microfilaria with chemical compounds


Gene context of Microfilaria

  • Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) mutant CBA/N mice show delayed clearance of injected microfilaria (mf) compared with wild-type CBA/J mice [17].
  • G-protein expression in infective larvae was also investigated by RT-PCR analysis: this stage of the organism was found to resemble the adult more than the microfilaria but differed from the adult in that GS was absent and Gi3 was present [18].
  • Thus, the MF1 antigen is microfilarial chitinase, which may function to degrade chitin-containing structures in the microfilaria or in its mosquito vector during parasite development and transmission [19].
  • These data suggest that GP20 Ag may be common to both uterine microfilaria and the infectious larval stages [20].
  • To assess the role of Ov-GloI as a potential vaccine candidate or serodiagnostic tool, the serological reactivity of the recombinant Ov-GloI was analysed with sera from microfilaria carriers and specific IgG1 antibodies were detected [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Microfilaria


  1. Interleukin-5 and the posttreatment eosinophilia in patients with onchocerciasis. Limaye, A.P., Abrams, J.S., Silver, J.E., Awadzi, K., Francis, H.F., Ottesen, E.A., Nutman, T.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. New tools for diagnosis and monitoring of bancroftian filariasis parasitism: the Polynesian experience. Nicolas, L. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. The invisible dermatoses. Brownstein, M.H., Rabinowitz, A.D. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Serum ferritin, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and retinol levels in lymphatic filariasis. Friis, H., Kaestel, P., Nielsen, N., Simonsen, P.E. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. A simple and quick method for enhanced detection of specific IgE in serum from lymphatic filariasis patients. Jaoko, W.G., Lund, M., Michael, E., Simonsen, P.E. Acta Trop. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparison of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine in the treatment of onchocerciasis. Greene, B.M., Taylor, H.R., Cupp, E.W., Murphy, R.P., White, A.T., Aziz, M.A., Schulz-Key, H., D'Anna, S.A., Newland, H.S., Goldschmidt, L.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Intravascular filarial parasites inhibit platelet aggregation. Role of parasite-derived prostanoids. Liu, L.X., Weller, P.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Comparison of flubendazole and diethylcarbamazine in treatment of onchocerciasis. Dominguez-Vazquez, A., Taylor, H.R., Greene, B.M., Ruvalcaba-Macias, A.M., Rivas-Alcala, A.R., Murphy, R.P., Beltran-Hernandez, F. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Chemotherapy of onchocerciasis: a controlled comparison of mebendazole, levamisole, and diethylcarbamazine. Rivas-Alcalá, A.R., Greene, B.M., Taylor, H.R., Domíguez-Vázquez, A., Ruvalcaba-Macías, A.M., Lugo-Pfeiffer, C., Mackenzie, C.D., Beltrán, F. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia of parasitic filarial nematodes as drug targets. Rao, R.U. Indian J. Med. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Differentiation of species and life cycle stages of Brugia spp. by isoenzyme analysis. Flockhart, H.A., Denham, D.A. J. Parasitol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunological cross-reaction between an Onchocerca paramyosin-like molecule and a microfilaria surface antigen. Conraths, F.J., Harnett, H.W., Worms, M.J., Parkhouse, R.M. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Synthesis and activity of substituted anthraquinones against a human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. Dhananjeyan, M.R., Milev, Y.P., Kron, M.A., Nair, M.G. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of combined diethylcarbamazine and albendazole treatment of bancroftian filariasis on parasite uptake and development in Culex pipiens L. Farid, H.A., Hammad, R.E., Hassan, M.M., Ramzy, R.M., El Setouhy, M., Weil, G.J. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Circulating non-human microfilaria in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Greene, B.M., Otto, G.F., Greenough, W.B. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Acanthocheilonema sabanicolae n. sp. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) from the savanna armadillo (Dasypus sabanicola) in Venezuela, with comments on the genus Acanthocheilonema. Eberhard, M.L., Campo-Aasen, I. J. Parasitol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Delayed clearance of filarial infection and enhanced Th1 immunity due to modulation of macrophage APC functions in xid mice. Mukhopadhyay, S., Sahoo, P.K., George, A., Bal, V., Rath, S., Ravindran, B. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Acanthocheilonema viteae: stage-specific expression of G-protein alpha-subunits. Grant, K.R., Harnett, M.M., Harnett, W. Exp. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Transmission-blocking antibodies recognize microfilarial chitinase in brugian lymphatic filariasis. Fuhrman, J.A., Lane, W.S., Smith, R.F., Piessens, W.F., Perler, F.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Guatemalan human onchocerciasis. II. Evidence for IgG3 involvement in acquired immunity to Onchocerca volvulus and identification of possible immune-associated antigens. Boyer, A.E., Tsang, V.C., Eberhard, M.L., Zea-Flores, G., Hightower, A., Pilcher, J.B., Zea-Flores, R., Zhou, W., Reimer, C.B. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. A stress-responsive glyoxalase I from the parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Sommer, A., Fischer, P., Krause, K., Boettcher, K., Brophy, P.M., Walter, R.D., Liebau, E. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Serum immunoglobulin and antibody levels and the passive transfer of resistance in hamsters infected with Dipetalonema viteae. Neilson, J.T., Crandall, C.A., Crandall, R.B. Acta Trop. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Evaluation of the intrathoracic injection method for screening of filaricides. Shibuya, T., Tanaka, H., Nogami, S., Oikawa, Y., Saito, M. Jpn. J. Exp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
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