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Disease relevance of Trichuris


High impact information on Trichuris

  • Treatment of genetically susceptible mice with exogenous IL-25 promoted type 2 cytokine responses and immunity to Trichuris [6].
  • IL-25 was constitutively expressed by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the gut of mouse strains that are resistant to Trichuris, and IL-25-deficient mice on a genetically resistant background failed to develop a type 2 immune response or eradicate infection [6].
  • Mice that lack Notch signaling in CD4+ T cells fail to develop a protective Th2 cell response against the gastrointestinal helminth Trichuris muris [7].
  • Expulsion of the gastrointestinal nematode Trichuris muris is mediated by a T helper (Th) 2 type response involving interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 [8].
  • Treatment of trichuris infection with albendazole [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Trichuris


Biological context of Trichuris


Anatomical context of Trichuris

  • Infection of resistant or susceptible mice with Trichuris muris provokes mesenteric lymph node responses which are polarized towards Th2 or Th1, respectively [16].
  • The major E/S protein of Trichuris trichiura, the human whipworm, is a highly immunogenic 47-kDa protein that has a pore forming activity that is thought to be essential for the attachment of the worm to host mucosal epithelium [17].
  • Surface properties of developing stages of Trichuris muris were investigated by analysis of binding affinities for specific anti-parasite antibodies present in a range of infection sera; in vitro eosinophil adherence studies; and binding of the fluorescent-labelled lectins, Con A, WGA, PNA and RCA [18].
  • The merthiolate-iodine-formalin (MIF) technique to detect human intestinal parasites in feces was inefficient for the detection of hookworm and Trichuris trichiura eggs [19].
  • The effect of disulfiram on egg shell morphology in the parasitic nematode Trichuris muris was studied in vitro and in vivo [20].

Associations of Trichuris with chemical compounds


Gene context of Trichuris

  • We show here for the first time that CCL2 plays an important role in the development of resistance to infection by the gastrointestinal nematode Trichuris muris [26].
  • Interleukin-9 enhances resistance to the intestinal nematode Trichuris muris [27].
  • Female IL-4 knockout (KO) mice on a C57BL/6 background (F4KOC57) are susceptible to infection with the cecal-dwelling nematode Trichuris muris whereas wild-type C57BL/6 mice are resistant and expel the parasite [28].
  • Absence of CC chemokine ligand 2 results in an altered Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and failure to expel Trichuris muris infection [26].
  • Resistance and susceptibility to the intestinal parasite Trichuris muris has been shown to be due to a dominant T helper 2 (Th2) and a dominant Th1 response, respectively [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Trichuris


  1. Infectious agent and immune response characteristics of chronic enterocolitis in captive rhesus macaques. Sestak, K., Merritt, C.K., Borda, J., Saylor, E., Schwamberger, S.R., Cogswell, F., Didier, E.S., Didier, P.J., Plauche, G., Bohm, R.P., Aye, P.P., Alexa, P., Ward, R.L., Lackner, A.A. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Weight gain of Kenyan school children infected with hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides is improved following once- or twice-yearly treatment with albendazole. Stephenson, L.S., Latham, M.C., Adams, E.J., Kinoti, S.N., Pertet, A. J. Nutr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp. Belizario, V.Y., Amarillo, M.E., de Leon, W.U., de los Reyes, A.E., Bugayong, M.G., Macatangay, B.J. Bull. World Health Organ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of different anthelmintic treatment regimens combined with iron supplementation on the nutritional status of schoolchildren in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a randomized controlled trial. Taylor, M., Jinabhai, C.C., Couper, I., Kleinschmidt, I., Jogessar, V.B. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunoepidemiology of intestinal helminth infections. 4. Immunopathology in trichuriasis: lessons from the mouse model. Jenkins, D., Wakelin, D. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Interleukin 25 regulates type 2 cytokine-dependent immunity and limits chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Owyang, A.M., Zaph, C., Wilson, E.H., Guild, K.J., McClanahan, T., Miller, H.R., Cua, D.J., Goldschmidt, M., Hunter, C.A., Kastelein, R.A., Artis, D. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Notch signaling is an important regulator of type 2 immunity. Tu, L., Fang, T.C., Artis, D., Shestova, O., Pross, S.E., Maillard, I., Pear, W.S. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Interleukin (IL)-18 promotes the development of chronic gastrointestinal helminth infection by downregulating IL-13. Helmby, H., Takeda, K., Akira, S., Grencis, R.K. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment of trichuris infection with albendazole. Beach, M.J., Addiss, D.G., Roberts, J.M., Lammie, P.J. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Clinical trial of flubendazole on hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections. Bunnag, D., Harinasuta, T., Viravan, C., Jarupakorn, V., Chindanond, D., Desakorn, V. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Cutting edge: a critical role for gene silencing in preventing excessive type 1 immunity. Hutchins, A.S., Artis, D., Hendrich, B.D., Bird, A.P., Scott, P., Reiner, S.L. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Efficacy of single doses of mebendazole in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura infection. Kan, S.P. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. The influence of genes mapping within the major histocompatibility complex on resistance to Trichuris muris infections in mice. Else, K.J., Wakelin, D., Wassom, D.L., Hauda, K.M. Parasitology (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. In vitro effect of benzimidazole drugs on the enzymes of lipid metabolism in Trichuris globulosa. Sarwal, S., Sanyal, S.N., Khera, S. J. Parasitol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of thiabendazole and fenbendazole on glucose uptake and carbohydrate metabolism in Trichuris globulosa. Jasra, N., Sanyal, S.N., Khera, S. Vet. Parasitol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of novel genes in intestinal tissue that are regulated after infection with an intestinal nematode parasite. Datta, R., deSchoolmeester, M.L., Hedeler, C., Paton, N.W., Brass, A.M., Else, K.J. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Isolation of a gene family that encodes the porin-like proteins from the human parasitic nematode Trichuris trichiura. Barker, G.C., Bundy, D.A. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Surface properties of developing stages of Trichuris muris. Preston, C.M., Jenkins, T., McLaren, D.J. Parasite Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Improvement of the merthiolate-iodine-formalin (MIF) fecal technique for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. Bawden, M.P. J. Parasitol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of disulfiram on egg shell formation in adult Trichuris muris. Hill, D.E., Fetterer, R.H. J. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Trichuris is not trivial. Cooper, E.S., Bundy, D.A. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Anthelmintics. Katz, M. Drugs (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis. Tan, T.H., Edgerton, S.A., Kumari, R., McAlister, M.S., Roe, S.M., Nagl, S., Pearl, L.H., Selkirk, M.E., Bianco, A.E., Totty, N.F., Engwerda, C., Gray, C.A., Meyer, D.J., Rowe, S.M. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of benzimidazole drugs on the uptake of low molecular weight nutrients in Trichuris globulosa. Sarwal, R., Sanyal, S.N., Khera, S. Int. J. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Sequence variation in the Trichuris trichiura beta-tubulin locus: implications for the development of benzimidazole resistance. Bennett, A.B., Anderson, T.J., Barker, G.C., Michael, E., Bundy, D.A. Int. J. Parasitol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Absence of CC chemokine ligand 2 results in an altered Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and failure to expel Trichuris muris infection. deSchoolmeester, M.L., Little, M.C., Rollins, B.J., Else, K.J. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Interleukin-9 enhances resistance to the intestinal nematode Trichuris muris. Faulkner, H., Renauld, J.C., Van Snick, J., Grencis, R.K. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Gastrointestinal nematode expulsion in IL-4 knockout mice is IL-13 dependent. Bancroft, A.J., Artis, D., Donaldson, D.D., Sypek, J.P., Grencis, R.K. Eur. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Interleukin-12 promotes a chronic intestinal nematode infection. Bancroft, A.J., Else, K.J., Sypek, J.P., Grencis, R.K. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Population distribution of Trichuris trichiura in a community of Jamaican children. Bundy, D.A., Thompson, D.E., Golden, M.H., Cooper, E.S., Anderson, R.M., Harland, P.S. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. The operculum-plug area and membranous structure of the eggs of Trichuris trichiura. Meng, X.Q., Wang, S.S., Zhou, W.Q., Wang, B.X., Han, W.S., Wang, L. Scanning electron microscopy. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Efficacy of albendazole in the treatment of Trichuris trichuria and Giardia intestinalis infection in rural Malay communities. Penggabean, M., Norhayati, n.u.l.l., Oothuman, P., Fatmah, M.S. Med. J. Malaysia (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Efficacy of moxidectin 6-month injectable and milbemycin oxime/lufenuron tablets against naturally acquired trichuris vulpis infections in dogs. Bowman, D.D., Legg, W., Stansfield, D.G. Vet. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
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