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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Simuliidae

  • Vesicular stomatitis viruses isolated from horses, afflicted during the recent outbreak in the western United States, and from black flies (Simuliidae) were characterized with respect to the homology of their genomic RNAs and the mobility of their proteins in polyacrylamide gels [1].
  • There have been detailed longitudinal studies of Anopheles gambiae populations in different ecological zones of West Africa. Studies on Simulium damnosum cytoforms (using chromosome identification methods) in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme were necessary to detect changes in distribution of species in relation to changed habitats [2].
  • To test the hypothesis of the possible role of this fly in the transmission of hepatitis B, 506 children (age range 2-11 years) were examined for the presence of skin lesions, and attempts were made to detect HBV DNA in and on blackflies using two polymerase chain reaction methods [3].
  • Three of the most common lawn-care insecticides detected in urban watersheds, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and malathion, have been evaluated using an acute orbital shaker toxicity test to determine their respective concentrations that produce 50% mortality (LC50) in Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt cytospecies IS-7 larvae [4].
  • These results indicate that, alike in humans, sLT are released in vitro from equine basophils along with histamine in response to various stimuli and that immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to Culicoides and Simulium are often involved in the pathogenesis of IDH [5].

High impact information on Simuliidae


Chemical compound and disease context of Simuliidae


Biological context of Simuliidae

  • Management of insecticide resistance in control of the Simulium damnosum complex by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme, West Africa: potential use of negative correlation between organophosphate resistance and pyrethroid susceptibility [16].
  • The objectives of the present study are to describe the male of Simulium damascenoi Py-Daniel, to provide a list of black-fly species their bionomics and distributions in the state of Amap , Brazil, and to provide an identification key for larvae and pupae for these species [17].
  • The chromosomal locations of two genes encoding the salivary protein products Simulidin (SVAT) and Simulium vittatum erythyma protein (SVEP) were identified using high-resolution cytogenetic mapping [18].

Associations of Simuliidae with chemical compounds

  • Temephos was used as a larvicide against Simulium ochraceum s.l. the target species [19].
  • In the present study, the sensitivities and susceptibilities of larval developmental stages of two black fly sibling species, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt cytospecies IS-7 and S. vittatum Zetterstedt cytospecies IIIL-1, were determined using the organophosphate-insecticide chlorpyrifos [9].
  • The presence of p,p'-DDE in the fish was believed due to its long persistence in the aquatic environment following applications of DDT in the 1950s for control of black flies and mosquitoes [20].
  • The susceptibility levels of other indicator species such as Agrion, Hydropsyche, Brachycentrus, Ephemera, etc. are discussed in relation to susceptibility levels of Simulium larvae under the same test conditions, and also in relation to current field dosages of the two insecticides in practical and experimental Simulium control [21].
  • Such acceleration was observed in ebony and dark flies, compared with light flies, and among beta-alanine-injected b/b flies competing with uninjected black flies [22].

Gene context of Simuliidae

  • As a prelude to a more detailed examination of PM function, we report on morphological and molecular studies of the PM type 1 (PM1) from Simulium vittatum [23].
  • This approach was tested on a number of probe and target sequences derived from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene of the West African black fly, Simulium damnosum sensu lato [24].
  • Simulium biting was seasonal (November to May) and peaked in March [25].
  • Cloned fragments of several Simulium genes (coding for aspartate amino transferase, cytochrome P450 and DNA polymerase) were successfully mapped physically by assigning specific band locations in Simulim sanctipauli V. & D [26].
  • Compared with an adult, a child experienced twice as many Simulium bites per hour (12.2 v 6.3) in the birch forest [27].


  1. Characterization of New Jersey vesicular stomatitis virus isolates from horses and black flies during the 1982 outbreak in Colorado. Schnitzlein, W.M., Reichmann, M.E. Virology (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Deforestation: effects on vector-borne disease. Walsh, J.F., Molyneux, D.H., Birley, M.H. Parasitology (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. The blackfly Simulium buissoni and infection by hepatitis B virus on a holoendemic island of the Marquesas archipelago in French Polynesia. Chanteau, S., Sechan, Y., Moulia-Pelat, J.P., Luquiaud, P., Spiegel, A., Boutin, J.P., Roux, J.F. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Susceptibility of black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) to lawn-care insecticides individually and as mixtures. Overmyer, J.P., Armbrust, K.L., Noblet, R. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Sulfidoleukotriene generation from peripheral blood leukocytes of horses affected with insect bite dermal hypersensitivity. Marti, E., Urwyler, A., Neuenschwander, M., Eicher, R., Meier, D., de Weck, A.L., Gerber, H., Lazary, S., Dahinden, C.A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Gut-specific transcriptional regulatory elements of the carboxypeptidase gene are conserved between black flies and Drosophila. Xiong, B., Jacobs-Lorena, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. The current status of onchocerciasis in the forest/savanna transition zone of Côte d'Ivoire. Adjami, A.G., Toé, L., Bissan, Y., Bugri, S., Yaméogo, L., Kone, M., Katholi, C.R., Unnasch, T.R. Parasitology (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Integrin-like RGD-dependent cell adhesion mechanism is involved in the rapid killing of Onchocerca microfilariae during early infection of Simulium damnosum s.l. Hagen, H.E., Kläger, S.L. Parasitology (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Influence of developmental stage on susceptibilities and sensitivities of Simulium vittatum IS-7 and Simulium vittatum IIIL-1 (Diptera: Simuliidae) to chlorpyrifos. Hyder, A.H., Overmyer, J.P., Noblet, R. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular differentiation of two sibling species of the black fly Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA. Duncan, G.A., Adler, P.H., Pruess, K.P., Powers, T.O. Genome (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Diagnostics in onchocerciasis: future challenges. Boatin, B.A., Toé, L., Alley, E.S., Dembélé, N., Weiss, N., Dadzie, K.Y. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Evaluation of the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Temephos, used for the control of Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Diptera, Simuliidae) on the associated entomofauna, Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. de Araújo-Coutinho, C.J., Cunha, A.d.e. .B., Serra-Freire, N.M., de Mello, R.P. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. A field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a biological control agent for Simulium chutteri (Diptera:Nematocera) in the middle Orange River. de Moor, F.C., Car, M. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis as a biocide of blackfly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae). Lacey, L.A., Mulla, M.S. J. Invertebr. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Acute toxicity of imidacloprid and fipronil to a nontarget aquatic insect, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt cytospecies IS-7. Overmyer, J.P., Mason, B.N., Armbrust, K.L. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Management of insecticide resistance in control of the Simulium damnosum complex by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme, West Africa: potential use of negative correlation between organophosphate resistance and pyrethroid susceptibility. Kurtak, D., Meyer, R., Ocran, M., Ouédraogo, M., Renaud, P., Sawadogo, R.O., Télé, B. Med. Vet. Entomol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Description of Simulium damascenoi (Diptera: Simuliidae) male and the black-fly species from the State of Amapá, Brazil. Hamada, N., Ale-Rocha, R., Luz, S.L. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Chromosomal localization of two antihemostatic salivary factors in Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Procunier, W., Zhang, D., Cupp, M.S., Miller, M., Cupp, E.W. J. Med. Entomol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Successful control of onchocerciasis vectors in San Vicente Pacaya, Guatemala, 1984-1989. Ochoa, J.O., Castro, J.C., Barrios, V.M., Juarez, E.L., Tada, I. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Residues of p,p'-DDE in lake trout in Little Moose Lake in New York State. Youngs, W.D., Gutenmann, W.H., Josephson, D.C., Miller, M.D., Lisk, D.J. Chemosphere (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Relative susceptibility of stream macroinvertebrates to temephos and chlorpyrifos, determined in laboratory continuous-flow systems. Muirhead-Thomson, R.C. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Influence of beta-alanine on mating and territorialism in Drosophila melanogaster. Jacobs, M.E. Behav. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Peritrophic matrix of the black fly Simulium vittatum: formation, structure, and analysis of its protein components. Ramos, A., Mahowald, A., Jacobs-Lorena, M. J. Exp. Zool. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Technical report. Optimizing probe selection in directed heteroduplex analysis using HDprobe 1.1. Zimmerman, P.A., Shapiro, M., Tang, J., Nutman, T.B., Unnasch, T.R. BioTechniques (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Onchocerciasis in Sudan: the Abu Hamed focus. Williams, J.F., Abu Yousif, A.H., Ballard, M., Awad, R., el Tayeb, M., Rasheed, M. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. DNA in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes of Simulium sanctipauli at loci relevant to insecticide resistance. Boakye, D.A., Cornel, A.J., Meredith, S.E., Brakefield, P.M., Collins, F.H. Med. Vet. Entomol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Factors influencing nuisance blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) activity in the Scottish Highlands. Coupland, J.B. Med. Vet. Entomol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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