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Chemical Compound Review

Cardiocap     ethyl2-[3-(2- diethylaminoethyl)-4- methyl...

Synonyms: Antiangor, Chromonar, Intensain, Carbocromen, Intercordin, ...
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Disease relevance of Intensain

  • Systemic and coronary haemodynamic effects of carbochromen (0.125 mg kg-1 min-1 for 40 min i.v.) and dipyridamole (0.05 mg kg-1 min-1 for 10 min i.v.) were investigated in 18 patients without detectable heart disease [1].
  • Atrial fibrillation plus chromonar abolished reactive hyperaemia in both the sinus node artery and the right ventricular branch vessel [2].
  • This paper describes the effect of carbocromene pretreatment on the functional recovery of the isolated rat heart submitted to ischemic cardiac arrest and reperfused [3].
  • In the present work, carbocromene-pretreated hearts are submitted to 30 minutes of normothermic no-flow ischemia after being arrested by a 2 min high potassium, substrate-free perfusion, containing 2 mg/l carbocromene (cardioplegic solution) [3].
  • In a previous study we showed that hearts isolated from rats which had been pretreated for 8 days with a daily oral administration of carbocromene at 15 mg/kg body weight, exhibit higher mechanical performances (aortic output, coronary flow, cardiac work) than hearts isolated from untreated animals [3].

High impact information on Intensain


Chemical compound and disease context of Intensain


Biological context of Intensain


Anatomical context of Intensain


Associations of Intensain with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Intensain


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Intensain

  • The first set of 10 dogs had CT and microsphere measurements before and after chromonar-induced increases in myocardial blood flow [22].
  • Normothermic ischemic cardiac arrest and reperfusion of the isolated working rat heart: effect of carbocromene pretreatment on functional and metabolic recovery [3].
  • In 19 dogs, we measured left ventricular pressure with a catheter tip transducer and dimensions with an epicardial echo transducer and, during each experiment, compared the diastolic pressure-dimension relationship during two states of coronary blood flow: control and maximal vasodilation (induced by intravenous chromonar) [23].
  • Carbocromene led to only slight pressure and rate alterations after ligation and reperfusion whereas untreated animals gave evidence of significant changes in these parameters [14].
  • Furthermore, contractility remained unaffected by carbocromene but was significantly augmented in the control group after both experimental procedures [14].


  1. Intravenous carbochromen: a potent and effective drug for estimation of coronary dilatory capacity. Opherk, D., Schuler, G., Waas, W., Dietz, R., Kübler, W. Eur. Heart J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of acute atrial fibrillation on the vasodilator reserve of the canine atrium. White, C.W., Holida, M.D., Marcus, M.L. Cardiovasc. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Normothermic ischemic cardiac arrest and reperfusion of the isolated working rat heart: effect of carbocromene pretreatment on functional and metabolic recovery. Bernier, M., de Leiris, J. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Angiogenic-induced enhancement of collateral blood flow to ischemic myocardium by vascular endothelial growth factor in dogs. Banai, S., Jaklitsch, M.T., Shou, M., Lazarous, D.F., Scheinowitz, M., Biro, S., Epstein, S.E., Unger, E.F. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Thyroxine-induced hypertrophy of the rabbit heart. Effect on regional oxygen extraction, flow, and oxygen consumption. Talafih, K., Briden, K.L., Weiss, H.R. Circ. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of the pericardium in the regulation of myocardial blood flow and its distribution in the normal and acutely failing left ventricle of the dog. Allard, J.R., Gertz, E.W., Verrier, E.D., Bristow, J.D., Hoffman, J.I. Cardiovasc. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Further evidence for the involvement of cAMP in central blood pressure regulation. Walland, A. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Protection by carbocromene and molsidomine against arrhythmias occurring during coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion in dogs. Fiedler, V.B., Kettenbach, B., Göbel, H., Nitz, R.E. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of carbocromene on ventricular fibrillation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. Fiedler, V.B., Schneider, S., Nitz, R.E. Pharmacology (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Pharmacologic- vs. ischemia-induced coronary artery vasodilation. Warltier, D.C., Gross, G.J., Brooks, H.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Microregional blood flow and high energy phosphates under conditions of high O2 supply in left ventricular subendocardium. Kleinert, H.D., Weiss, H.R. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Density of plasma-perfused capillaries in the rat heart during carbocromene-induced vasodilation. Schubothe, M., Vetterlein, F., Schmidt, G. Basic Res. Cardiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Separation of overlap and collateral perfusion of ischemic canine myocardium: important considerations in the analysis of vasodilator-induced coronary steal. Gross, G.J., Buck, J.D., Warltier, D.C., Hardman, H.F. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of intravenous carbocromene on infarct size following acute coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion in the dog. Fiedler, V.B., Kettenbach, B., Nitz, R.E. Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Platelet aggregation and adhesiveness as well as blood lipids level in dogs treated with di-(1-isoquinolinyl)-di-(pyridyl-2')-butane and carbocromen. Woyke, M., Cwajda, H., Wójcicki, J. Polish journal of pharmacology and pharmacy. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Haemodynamic effects of carbochromen. Barletta, G.A., Malfanti, P.L., Bisi, G., Franchi, F., Fantini, F. Acta cardiologica. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Ultrastructural modifications of the platelet plasma membrane in vascular diseases and the effect of a carbochromen derivative as studied by freeze-fracture and computer measurement. Bianciardi, G., Vittoria, A., Toti, P., Franchi, M., Martelli, G., Di Perri, T., Weber, G. Atherosclerosis (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of oral carbocromene pretreatment on infarct size following experimental coronary artery occlusion. Fiedler, V.B., Nitz, R.E., Buchheim, S. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. The carbochromene derivative AD6 reduces the TxB2/6-keto-PGF1 alpha ratio in cerebral cortex during hypoxia and recovery and leukotriene synthesis in brain tissue, in the rat. Bertazzo, A., Petroni, A., Sarti, S., Colombo, C., Galli, C. Prostaglandins (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Studies on the characteristics of carbochromen hydrochloride crystals. II. Polymorphism and cracking in the tablets. Yamaoka, T., Nakamachi, H., Miyata, K. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Transmural coronary flow reserve patterns in dogs. Grattan, M.T., Hanley, F.L., Stevens, M.B., Hoffman, J.I. Am. J. Physiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Measurement of myocardial blood flow by ultrafast computed tomography. Wolfkiel, C.J., Ferguson, J.L., Chomka, E.V., Law, W.R., Labin, I.N., Tenzer, M.L., Booker, M., Brundage, B.H. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Coronary vasodilation shifts the diastolic pressure-dimension curve of the left ventricle. Verrier, E.D., Bristow, J.D., Hoffman, J.I. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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