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Chemical Compound Review

Lamprene     N,5-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3- propan-2-ylimino...

Synonyms: Lampren, Clofazimina, clofazimine, Chlofazimine, Clofaziminum, ...
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Disease relevance of Lamprene


High impact information on Lamprene


Chemical compound and disease context of Lamprene


Biological context of Lamprene


Anatomical context of Lamprene


Associations of Lamprene with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Lamprene

  • HPLC analyses suggested that the drugs were not significantly metabolized in the MPO-H2O2 system in the absence of Cl-. Bleaching of clofazimine was stimulated by Cl- in the MPO system, suggesting the involvement of HOCl [22].
  • Furthermore, TNF-alpha potentiates the pro-oxidative effects of clofazimine and its analogues on PMNL [24].
  • In addition, treatment of infected mice with either IFN-gamma or liposomal clofazimine significantly reduced the infection in peritoneal macrophages [25].
  • We have used a phospholipase C (PLC)-deletion mutant (plcABC) of the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), as well as a plcA-insertion mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis, to investigate the possible involvement of PLCs in clofazimine-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial K(+) transport and growth [26].
  • METHODS: The ceoB and ceoC genes of MTB, which encode the TrkA proteins, CeoB and CeoC, were deleted by homologous recombination, and the double-knockout mutant and wild-type strains compared with respect to K+ uptake and growth in the presence and absence of clofazimine (0.015-2.5 mg/L) using radioassay procedures [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lamprene

  • From the perspective of the chemotherapy of MAC infections, the present findings indicate an important possibility that certain antimycobacterial drugs, such as rifamycins (RIF and RFB), INH, CLO, and also some types of fluoroquinolones, may interfere with the ROI-mediated antimicrobial mechanisms of host MPhis against intracellular MAC organisms [28].
  • After treatment for 4 weeks, the large quantities of clofazimine that had accumulated in the organs of mice seriously interfered with the enumeration of the CFU and assessment of the efficacy of the treatment [29].
  • When Clofazimine was administered to athymic mice bearing WIL as a subcutaneous xenograft, tumour growth rate was significantly reduced, so that after 3 weeks, tumour size was one third that of controls (p < 0.01) [14].
  • With the knowledge of this rare condition caused by clofazimine, appropriate management to avoid an unnecessary laparotomy is possible [30].
  • Clofazimine crystals are red in the frozen section and exhibit bright-red birefringence [30].


  1. A comparison of two regimens for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS: rifabutin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin versus rifampin, ethambutol, clofazimine, and ciprofloxacin. Canadian HIV Trials Network Protocol 010 Study Group. Shafran, S.D., Singer, J., Zarowny, D.P., Phillips, P., Salit, I., Walmsley, S.L., Fong, I.W., Gill, M.J., Rachlis, A.R., Lalonde, R.G., Fanning, M.M., Tsoukas, C.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease with clofazimine. Lee, S.J., Wegner, S.A., McGarigle, C.J., Bierer, B.E., Antin, J.H. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. The riminophenazine agents clofazimine and B669 inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell lines in vitro by phospholipase A2-mediated oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms. Van Rensburg, C.E., Van Staden, A.M., Anderson, R. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Kussmaul respiration and abdominal pain secondary to metabolic acidosis in AIDS patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection receiving clofazimine. Soriano, V., Moreno, V., Alba, A., Laguna, F., González-Lahoz, J. AIDS (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Bull's eye retinopathy and clofazimine. Forster, D.J., Causey, D.M., Rao, N.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Methemoglobinemia secondary to clofazimine treatment for chronic graft-versus-host disease. Moreira, V., De Medeiros, B.C., Bonfim, C.M., Pasquini, R., De Medeiros, C.R. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS with a four-drug oral regimen. Rifampin, ethambutol, clofazimine, and ciprofloxacin. The California Collaborative Treatment Group. Kemper, C.A., Meng, T.C., Nussbaum, J., Chiu, J., Feigal, D.F., Bartok, A.E., Leedom, J.M., Tilles, J.G., Deresinski, S.C., McCutchan, J.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Clinical trial of ofloxacin alone and in combination with dapsone plus clofazimine for treatment of lepromatous leprosy. Ji, B., Perani, E.G., Petinom, C., N'Deli, L., Grosset, J.H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. The individual microbiologic effect of three antimycobacterial agents, clofazimine, ethambutol, and rifampin, on Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with AIDS. Kemper, C.A., Havlir, D., Haghighat, D., Dubé, M., Bartok, A.E., Sison, J.P., Yao, Y., Yangco, B., Leedom, J.M., Tilles, J.G. J. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. In vivo activity of amikacin alone or in combination with clofazimine or rifabutin or both against acute experimental Mycobacterium avium complex infections in beige mice. Gangadharam, P.R., Perumal, V.K., Podapati, N.R., Kesavalu, L., Iseman, M.D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Quadruple-drug therapy for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare bacteremia in AIDS patients. Hoy, J., Mijch, A., Sandland, M., Grayson, L., Lucas, R., Dwyer, B. J. Infect. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Clinical pharmacokinetics of clofazimine. A review. Holdiness, M.R. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of clofazimine alone or combined with dapsone on neutrophil and lymphocyte functions in normal individuals and patients with lepromatous leprosy. van Rensburg, C.E., Gatner, E.M., Imkamp, F.M., Anderson, R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Clofazimine alters the energy metabolism and inhibits the growth rate of a human lung-cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo. Sri-Pathmanathan, R.M., Plumb, J.A., Fearon, K.C. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Bioavailability and chemotherapeutic activity of clofazimine against Mycobacterium avium complex infections in beige mice following a single implant of a biodegradable polymer. Kailasam, S., Wise, D.L., Gangadharam, P.R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Involvement of cell adhesion and activation molecules in the pathogenesis of erythema dyschromicum perstans (ashy dermatitis). The effect of clofazimine therapy. Baranda, L., Torres-Alvarez, B., Cortes-Franco, R., Moncada, B., Portales-Perez, D.P., Gonzalez-Amaro, R. Archives of dermatology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infection: do the results of in vitro susceptibility tests predict therapeutic outcome in humans? Sison, J.P., Yao, Y., Kemper, C.A., Hamilton, J.R., Brummer, E., Stevens, D.A., Deresinski, S.C. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. An in vitro comparison of the effects of the prooxidative riminophenazines clofazimine and B669 on neutrophil phospholipase A2 activity and superoxide generation. Krajewska, M.M., Anderson, R. J. Infect. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial of clofazimine compared with chloroquine in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Bezerra, E.L., Vilar, M.J., da Trindade Neto, P.B., Sato, E.I. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Activities of roxithromycin used alone and in combination with ethambutol, rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine against Mycobacterium avium complex. Rastogi, N., Goh, K.S., Bryskier, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Prooxidative activities of 10 phenazine derivatives relative to that of clofazimine. Zeis, B.M., Anderson, R., O'Sullivan, J.F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Mechanisms by which clofazimine and dapsone inhibit the myeloperoxidase system. A possible correlation with their anti-inflammatory properties. van Zyl, J.M., Basson, K., Kriegler, A., van der Walt, B.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. A phase II evaluation of clofazimine plus doxorubicin in advanced, unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Falkson, C.I., Falkson, G. Oncology (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of clofazimine analogues and tumor necrosis factor-alpha individually and in combination on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions in vitro. Krajewska, M.M., Anderson, R., O'Sullivan, J.F. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Enhancement of antibacterial activity of clofazimine against Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complex infection induced by IFN-gamma is mediated by TNF-alpha. Gomez-Flores, R., Tucker, S.D., Kansal, R., Tamez-Guerra, R., Mehta, R.T. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Antimicrobial activity of clofazimine is not dependent on mycobacterial C-type phospholipases. Bopape, M.C., Steel, H.C., Cockeran, R., Matlola, N.M., Fourie, P.B., Anderson, R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of clofazimine on potassium uptake by a Trk-deletion mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cholo, M.C., Boshoff, H.I., Steel, H.C., Cockeran, R., Matlola, N.M., Downing, K.J., Mizrahi, V., Anderson, R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Interaction of antimycobacterial drugs with the anti-Mycobacterium avium complex effects of antimicrobial effectors, reactive oxygen intermediates, reactive nitrogen intermediates, and free fatty acids produced by macrophages. Sano, K., Tomioka, H., Sato, K., Sano, C., Kawauchi, H., Cai, S., Shimizu, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium avium complex in the beige mouse model. Ji, B., Lounis, N., Truffot-Pernot, C., Grosset, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Clofazimine-induced crystal-storing histiocytosis producing chronic abdominal pain in a leprosy patient. Sukpanichnant, S., Hargrove, N.S., Kachintorn, U., Manatsathit, S., Chanchairujira, T., Siritanaratkul, N., Akaraviputh, T., Thakerngpol, K. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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