The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

AC1MDQME     (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-amino- 3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy...

Synonyms: AG-H-00305, CHEBI:60313, CTK5E1468, KB-206459, AKOS006281393, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of GALACTOSAMINE


High impact information on GALACTOSAMINE

  • PGE1 (1 micromol/L) was administered 2 hours before D-GalN (5 mmol/L) in primary culture rat hepatocytes [6].
  • PGE1 reduced inhibitor kappaBalpha degradation, NF-kappaB activation, NOS-2 expression, and apoptosis induced by D-GalN [6].
  • We have previously shown that PGE1 preadministration protects against NO-dependent cell death induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN) through a rapid increase of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity, inducible NO synthase (NOS-2) expression, and NO production [6].
  • Total hepatic HGF contents, which were composed of murine (endogeneous) and human (derived from transgene) HGF, in TG mice were higher than those in WT mice at 0, 12, and 24 hours after administration of 3 g/kg body weight of D-GalN [2].
  • In TG mice, the percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive hepatocytes was high at 0 hours after D-GalN treatment, and increased at 24 hours [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of GALACTOSAMINE


Biological context of GALACTOSAMINE


Anatomical context of GALACTOSAMINE


Associations of GALACTOSAMINE with other chemical compounds

  • RESULTS: PGE(1) decreased liver injury and increased TNF-alpha and nitrite/nitrate concentrations in serum of rats treated with D-GalN [14].
  • In a separate experiment, we found that the concentration of serum TNF-alpha rose to 2016 pg/mL at 1 hr after intoxication of mice with D-GalN and LPS, but this increase was suppressed by THS pretreatment (10, 50, or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) to 716, 454, or 406 pg/mL, respectively [15].
  • High D-GalN concentration (40 mM) induced a reduction of all parameters associated with apoptosis and enhanced all those related to necrosis and intracellular oxidative stress, including a reduction of GSH/GSSG ratio and MTP in comparison with D-GalN (2.5-10 mM)-treated cells [5].
  • D-GalN-treated rats had increased hepatic lipid peroxide (LPO) content and decreased hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and Se-glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSHpx) activities at 24 h, but not 6 h, after treatment [16].
  • By bioassay-guided separation using in vitro D-GalN-induced damage to hepatocytes, five flavonol glycosides were isolated as the hepatoprotective constituents of the methanolic extract [17].

Gene context of GALACTOSAMINE

  • As D-GalN sensitizes the host for the toxic effects of TNF-alpha, a possible mechanism could be the prevention of synthesis of the major acute-phase proteins SAA and SAP [18].
  • Gene transfer with hIL-4 reduced the serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in response to endotoxin/D-GalN by 80% from 113.1 pg/ml in mock-transfected animals to 22.2 pg/ml (p < 0.05); human IL-13 gene transfer reduced serum TNF-alpha levels by 90% (113.1 pg/ml to 11.6 pg/ml; p < 0.05) [19].
  • Nevertheless, the reduction of TNF-alpha bioactivity by anti-TNF-alpha antibodies also reduced liver injury by D-GalN [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that prior administration of PGE(1) to D-GalN treated animals enhanced expression of TNF-alpha and iNOS in hepatocytes, and that this was causally related to protection by PGE(1) against D-GalN induced liver injury [14].
  • D-GalN augmented the NO production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with either TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GALACTOSAMINE


  1. Novel lymphotoxin alpha (LTalpha) knockout mice with unperturbed tumor necrosis factor expression: reassessing LTalpha biological functions. Liepinsh, D.J., Grivennikov, S.I., Klarmann, K.D., Lagarkova, M.A., Drutskaya, M.S., Lockett, S.J., Tessarollo, L., McAuliffe, M., Keller, J.R., Kuprash, D.V., Nedospasov, S.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Protective action of hepatocyte growth factor for acute liver injury caused by D-galactosamine in transgenic mice. Okano, J., Shiota, G., Kawasaki, H. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Desensitization of the permeability transition pore by cyclosporin a prevents activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and liver damage by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Soriano, M.E., Nicolosi, L., Bernardi, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Superantigen and endotoxin synergize in the induction of lethal shock. Blank, C., Luz, A., Bendigs, S., Erdmann, A., Wagner, H., Heeg, K. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. PGE1 protection against apoptosis induced by D-galactosamine is not related to the modulation of intracellular free radical production in primary culture of rat hepatocytes. Quintero, A., Pedraza, C.A., Siendones, E., Kamal ElSaid, A.M., Colell, A., García-Ruiz, C., Montero, J.L., De la Mata, M., Fernández-Checa, J.C., Miño, G., Muntané, J. Free Radic. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. PGE1-induced NO reduces apoptosis by D-galactosamine through attenuation of NF-kappaB and NOS-2 expression in rat hepatocytes. Siendones, E., Fouad, D., Díaz-Guerra, M.J., de la Mata, M., Boscá, L., Muntané, J. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. TNF-alpha but not IL-1alpha is correlated with PGE1-dependent protection against acute D-galactosamine-induced liver injury. Muntané, J., Montero, J.L., Lozano, J.M., Miranda-Vizuete, A., de La Mata, M., Miño, G. Can. J. Gastroenterol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Involvement of 26-kDa cell-associated TNF-alpha in experimental hepatitis and exacerbation of liver injury with a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. Solorzano, C.C., Ksontini, R., Pruitt, J.H., Hess, P.J., Edwards, P.D., Kaibara, A., Abouhamze, A., Auffenberg, T., Galardy, R.E., Vauthey, J.N., Copeland, E.M., Edwards, C.K., Lauwers, G.Y., Clare-Salzler, M., MacKay, S.L., Moldawer, L.L., Lazarus, D.D. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Hepatoprotective effect of taxiresinol and (7'R)-7'-hydroxylariciresinol on D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice. Nguyen, N.T., Banskota, A.H., Tezuka, Y., Le Tran, Q., Nobukawa, T., Kurashige, Y., Sasahara, M., Kadota, S. Planta Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. 1-O-galloyl-6-O-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy)benzoyl-beta-D-glucose, a new hepatoprotective constituent from Combretum quadrangulare. Adnyana, I.K., Tezuka, Y., Awale, S., Banskota, A.H., Tran, K.Q., Kadota, S. Planta Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Protective effect of wogonin on endotoxin-induced lethal shock in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice. Van Dien, M., Takahashi, K., Mu, M.M., Koide, N., Sugiyama, T., Mori, I., Yoshida, T., Yokochi, T. Microbiol. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibitory effect and action mechanism of sesquiterpenes from Zedoariae Rhizoma on D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury. Matsuda, H., Ninomiya, K., Morikawa, T., Yoshikawa, M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunomodulatory activity of TNF-alpha during acute liver injury induced by D-galactosamine and its protection by PGE1 in rats. Lozano, J.M., Padillo, J., Montero, J.L., Peña, J., De la Mata, M., Muntané, J. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. TNF-alpha dependent production of inducible nitric oxide is involved in PGE(1) protection against acute liver injury. Muntané, J., Rodríguez, F.J., Segado, O., Quintero, A., Lozano, J.M., Siendones, E., Pedraza, C.A., Delgado, M., O'Valle, F., García, R., Montero, J.L., De La Mata, M., Miño, G. Gut (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibitory effect of tetrahydroswertianolin on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent hepatic apoptosis in mice. Hase, K., Xiong, Q., Basnet, P., Namba, T., Kadota, S. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Xanthine oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to the development of D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats. Ohta, Y., Matsura, T., Kitagawa, A., Tokunaga, K., Yamada, K. Free Radic. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Hepatoprotective principles from the flowers of Tilia argentea (linden): structure requirements of tiliroside and mechanisms of action. Matsuda, H., Ninomiya, K., Shimoda, H., Yoshikawa, M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. CpG-DNA upregulates the major acute-phase proteins SAA and SAP. Schmidt, U., Wagner, H., Miethke, T. Cell. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Gene transfer with IL-4 and IL-13 improves survival in lethal endotoxemia in the mouse and ameliorates peritoneal macrophages immune competence. Baumhofer, J.M., Beinhauer, B.G., Wang, J.E., Brandmeier, H., Geissler, K., Losert, U., Philip, R., Aversa, G., Rogy, M.A. Eur. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Protection against liver injury by PGE1 or anti-TNF-alpha is associated with a reduction of TNF-R1 expression in hepatocytes. Lozano, J.M., Collado, J.A., Medina, T., Muntané, J. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The enhancing action of D-galactosamine on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Morikawa, A., Koide, N., Sugiyama, T., Mu, M.M., Hassan, F., Islam, S., Ito, H., Mori, I., Yoshida, T., Yokochi, T. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Adenovirus-mediated hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer prevents lethal liver failure in rats. Nomi, T., Shiota, G., Isono, M., Sato, K., Kawasaki, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. D-galactosamine-induced mouse hepatic apoptosis: possible involvement with tumor necrosis factor, but not with caspase-3 activity. Itokazu, Y., Segawa, Y., Inoue, N., Omata, T. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities