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Chemical Compound Review

AC1MHZO0     3,3-diethyl-1-[(4- methylpiperazin-1...

Synonyms: LS-131517
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Disease relevance of dCMP

  • Under these conditions, the SP01-modified RNA polymerase preferentially stimulated the synthesis of functional mRNA for the phage enzyme dCMP deaminase (deoxycytidylate aminohydrolase, EC, whereas unmodified B. subtilis RNA polymerase could stimulate synthesis of this mRNA in small quantity and only after prolonged incubation [1].
  • Using poly(dA).(dT)20 as a template-primer, we investigated the misincorporation of dGMP, dCMP, and dAMP by the alpha subunit and the core of E. coli DNA polymerase III [2].
  • The 5'-ends of the newly synthesized adenovirus DNA strands were covalently linked to an 80,000-dalton protein linked to dCMP [3].
  • CMP-dCMP-UMP-dUMP kinase of Yoshida sarcoma phosphorylated dUMP with a Km of 3.1 X 10(-3) M and dCMP with a Km of 7.1 X 10 (-4) M, but it did not phosphorylate dTMP [4].
  • dCMP deaminase from Bacillus subtilis has been purified 700-fold [5].

High impact information on dCMP

  • We show here that Rev1 protein has a deoxycytidyl transferase activity which transfers a dCMP residue from dCTP to the 3' end of a DNA primer in a template-dependent reaction [6].
  • The ratio of dCMP to dAMP incorporated varies, depending on the DNA polymerase involved [7].
  • TMP, dAMP, dGMP, dCMP, dUMP, FdUMP, and p-nitrophenylphosphate can serve as phosphate donors [8].
  • TS(N177D) turns over dCMP at 35 times its rate of dUMP turnover, whereas wild-type TS turns over dCMP at < 10(-5) of its rate of dUMP turnover [9].
  • The first step in the replication of the adenovirus genome is the covalent attachment of the 5'-terminal nucleotide, dCMP, to the virus-encoded terminal protein precursor (pTP) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of dCMP

  • Imbalanced deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools and spontaneous mutation rates determined during dCMP deaminase-defective bacteriophage T4 infections [11].
  • Bacteriophage T4 endonucleases II and IV, oppositely affected by dCMP hydroxymethylase activity, have different roles in the degradation and in the RNA polymerase-dependent replication of T4 cytosine-containing DNA [12].
  • Kinetic and equilibrium alpha-secondary tritium isotope effects on reactions catalyzed by dCMP hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4 [13].
  • We devised an in vitro system that specifically incorporated dCMP, the first nucleotide at the 5' ends, onto a threonine residue of the TP of Streptomyces coelicolor [14].
  • Replacement of Asn177 with aspartate (Asn177-->Asp) in Escherichia coli TS creates a novel ability to methylate 2'-deoxycytidylate (dCMP) [15].

Biological context of dCMP

  • An early event in the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication is the formation of a covalent complex between the 87,000-dalton adenovirus terminal protein precursor and 5'- dCMP (pTP-dCMP complex) [16].
  • While normal V79 cells derived more than 80% of their dTTP from CDP reduction via deamination of dCMP, the mutant cells had to rely completely on UDP reduction for de novo synthesis of dTTP, which became limiting for DNA synthesis [17].
  • Phosphorylation of dUMP BY CMP-dCMP-UMP-dUMP kinase was inhibited competitively by DCMP and dTMP with Ki's of 6.9 X 10(-4) and 3.0 X 10(-3) M, respectively, and phosphorylation of dCMP was inhibited completely by dUMP a Ki of 2.2 X 10(-3) M [4].
  • Substrate specificity studies showed that CMP kinase from E. coli is active with ATP, dATP, or GTP as donors and with CMP, dCMP, and arabinofuranosyl-CMP as acceptors [18].
  • Second, two mutant form of dCMP deaminase (H90N and H94N), altered in presumed zinc-binding sites, were analyzed similarly, with the results suggesting that some, but not all, interactions require normal structure near the catalytic site [19].

Anatomical context of dCMP

  • The 80,000-dalton form of the adenovirus (Ad) terminal protein (pTP) has been purified from Ad-infected HeLa cells. pTP was assayed by its ability to form a covalent complex with dCMP [20].
  • On activated DNA aphidicolin competitively inhibits the incorporation of dCMP by both calf thymus DNA polymerase alpha A2 and C enzymes and inhibits the incorporation of the other three deoxynucleoside monophosphates apparently non-competitively [21].
  • Extracts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation groups A and B exhibit 25 and 40%, respectively, of the incorporation of dCMP compared with normal extracts, but extracts from an XP-D cell line exhibit twice the activity [22].
  • Beginning at about six hours after addition of medium with 10% calf serum to serum-depleted K12 cultures, cytosol TK and dCMP deaminase activities increased when the cultures were incubated at 36.5 degrees but not at 40.5 degrees [23].
  • The nucleotides CMP, UMP, dUMP, dCMP or dTMP are individually incubated 30 min at 37 degrees C with erythrocyte hemolysate and 4 mM magnesium chloride in Tris, pH 7 [24].

Associations of dCMP with other chemical compounds

  • To model this reaction, we evaluated excision of the gemcitabine nucleotide from oligodeoxynucleotide (19-mer) containing 3'-penultimate dFdC monophosphate (dFdCMP) or dCMP by the 3'-->5' exonuclease of the Klenow fragment [25].
  • This series of reactions requires the actions of T4-coded ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and its associated reducing system, dCTP/dUTPase and dCMP hydroxymethylase, 3H being lost to water at the last step [26].
  • By direct assay and by unidimensional and two-dimensional acrylamide electrophoretic separations the following T4-coded enzymes were shown to be associated with the complex: ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, dCMP deaminase, dCTP/dUTPase, dCMP hydroxymethylase, dTMP synthetase, and DNA polymerase [26].
  • Recombinant mouse Rev1 protein was found to insert a dCMP residue opposite guanine, adenine, thymine, cytosine, uracil, and an apurinic/apyrimidinic site and to have weak ability for transfer to a mismatched terminus [27].
  • However, dCTP alone produced only a weak activation of the deamination of 5-AZA-dCMP in comparison to the potent activation when dCMP was the substrate [28].

Gene context of dCMP

  • Here, we have demonstrated that HCMV increases expression of the cellular deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMP deaminase), which provides the substrate for TS by converting dCMP to dUMP [29].
  • In a strain deleted for cmk, the pools of CMP and dCMP were elevated approximately 30-fold [30].
  • The kinase, encoded by the dak1 gene, was approximately 60% similar to the human UMP-CMP kinase and predominantly phosphorylated CMP, dCMP, and UMP [31].
  • We have studied 3 -5 exonuclease activity of APE1 towards dCMP and dTMP residues and modified dCMP analogs with photoreactive groups at the 3 end of the nicked DNA [32].
  • The in vitro results also suggested the involvement of pol iota and/or REV1 in inserting correct dCMP opposite alpha-OH-PdG during error-free synthesis [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of dCMP

  • The 5'-ends of the primers used to generate the cloneable PCR fragments contain an additional 12 nucleotide (nt) sequence lacking dCMP [34].
  • The proposed roles of Cys148 and Asp179 in deoxycytidylate (dCMP) hydroxymethylase (CH) have been tested using site-directed mutagenesis [35].
  • Sequence analysis of more than 300 clones of these full-length products on each template showed that only the correct dCMP was incorporated opposite both the adducted and non-adducted G-hotspot in the template [36].
  • The conformations of d(CGT)-AAF and -AF were studied by comparing the absorption and circular dichroism properties with those of dCMP + dGMP-AAF or -AF + dTMP in a molar ratio of 1:1:1 and AAF- and AF-containing dGMP [37].
  • Alternatively, 5'-[32P]epsilon dAMP and 5'-[32P]epsilon dCMP were analysed by two-dimensional TLC on PEI cellulose and autoradiography (method B) [38].


  1. Synthesis of specific functional messenger RNA in vitro by phage-SP01-modified RNA polymerase of Bacillus subtilis. Swanton, M., Smith, D.H., Shub, D.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. A specific role of MutT protein: to prevent dG.dA mispairing in DNA replication. Akiyama, M., Maki, H., Sekiguchi, M., Horiuchi, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Replication of adenovirus DNA-protein complex with purified proteins. Ikeda, J.E., Enomoto, T., Hurwitz, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
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  9. Asn177 in Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase is a major determinant of pyrimidine specificity. Hardy, L.W., Nalivaika, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Template requirements for the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication. Challberg, M.D., Rawlins, D.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Imbalanced deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools and spontaneous mutation rates determined during dCMP deaminase-defective bacteriophage T4 infections. Sargent, R.G., Mathews, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Bacteriophage T4 endonucleases II and IV, oppositely affected by dCMP hydroxymethylase activity, have different roles in the degradation and in the RNA polymerase-dependent replication of T4 cytosine-containing DNA. Carlson, K., Overvatn, A. Genetics (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Kinetic and equilibrium alpha-secondary tritium isotope effects on reactions catalyzed by dCMP hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4. Graves, K.L., Hardy, L.W. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. In vitro deoxynucleotidylation of the terminal protein of streptomyces linear chromosomes. Yang, C.C., Chen, Y.H., Tsai, H.H., Huang, C.H., Huang, T.W., Chen, C.W. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Use of a purified heterodimer to test negative cooperativity as the basis of substrate inactivation of Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase (Asn177-->Asp). Hardy, L.W., Pacitti, D.F., Nalivaika, E. Structure (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Function of adenovirus terminal protein in the initiation of DNA replication. Tamanoi, F., Stillman, B.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotide metabolism by substrate cycles in dCMP deaminase-deficient V79 hamster cells. Bianchi, V., Pontis, E., Reichard, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is structurally related to other nucleoside monophosphate kinases. Bucurenci, N., Sakamoto, H., Briozzo, P., Palibroda, N., Serina, L., Sarfati, R.S., Labesse, G., Briand, G., Danchin, A., Bărzu, O., Gilles, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Protein-protein interactions involving T4 phage-coded deoxycytidylate deaminase and thymidylate synthase. McGaughey, K.M., Wheeler, L.J., Moore, J.T., Maley, G.F., Maley, F., Mathews, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro: purification of the terminal protein in a functional form. Enomoto, T., Lichy, J.H., Ikeda, J.E., Hurwitz, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Studies on the inhibition of highly purified calf thymus 8S and 7.3S DNA polymerase alpha by aphidicolin. Holmes, A.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Efficient in vitro repair of 7-hydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine by human cell extracts: involvement of multiple pathways. Jaiswal, M., Lipinski, L.J., Bohr, V.A., Mazur, S.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Formation of thymidine kinase and deoxycytidylate deaminase in synchronized cultures of chinese hamster cells temperature-sensitive for DNA synthesis. Kit, S., Jorgensen, G.N. J. Cell. Physiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Assay of human erythrocyte pyrimidine and deoxypyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase by isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Cook, L., Schafer-Mitchell, M., Angle, C., Stohs, S. J. Chromatogr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Excision of 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (gemcitabine) monophosphate residues from DNA. Gandhi, V., Legha, J., Chen, F., Hertel, L.W., Plunkett, W. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  27. Mechanisms of dCMP transferase reactions catalyzed by mouse Rev1 protein. Masuda, Y., Takahashi, M., Fukuda, S., Sumii, M., Kamiya, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Kinetic interaction of 5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphate and its 5'-triphosphate with deoxycytidylate deaminase. Momparler, R.L., Rossi, M., Bouchard, J., Vaccaro, C., Momparler, L.F., Bartolucci, S. Mol. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Human cytomegalovirus requires cellular deoxycytidylate deaminase for replication in quiescent cells. Gribaudo, G., Riera, L., Caposio, P., Maley, F., Landolfo, S. J. Gen. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. The cmk gene encoding cytidine monophosphate kinase is located in the rpsA operon and is required for normal replication rate in Escherichia coli. Fricke, J., Neuhard, J., Kelln, R.A., Pedersen, S. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. The Drosophila melanogaster UMP-CMP kinase cDNA encodes an N-terminal mitochondrial import signal. Curbo, S., Amiri, M., Foroogh, F., Johansson, M., Karlsson, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. 3 -5 exonuclease activity of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 towards DNAs containing dNMP and their modified analogs at the 3 end of single strand DNA break. Dyrkheeva, N.S., Khodyreva, S.N., Sukhanova, M.V., Safronov, I.V., Dezhurov, S.V., Lavrik, O.I. Biochemistry Mosc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Mammalian translesion DNA synthesis across an acrolein-derived deoxyguanosine adduct. Participation of DNA polymerase eta in error-prone synthesis in human cells. Yang, I.Y., Miller, H., Wang, Z., Frank, E.G., Ohmori, H., Hanaoka, F., Moriya, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Ligation-independent cloning of PCR products (LIC-PCR). Aslanidis, C., de Jong, P.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Roles of Cys148 and Asp179 in catalysis by deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4 examined by site-directed mutagenesis. Graves, K.L., Butler, M.M., Hardy, L.W. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-deoxyguanosine adducts are accurately bypassed by yeast DNA polymerase zeta in vitro. Simhadri, S., Kramata, P., Zajc, B., Sayer, J.M., Jerina, D.M., Hinkle, D.C., Wei, C.S. Mutat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. A circular dichroism study on the conformation of d(CGT) modified with N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene or 2-aminofluorene. van Houte, L.P., Westra, J.G., Retèl, J., van Grondelle, R. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. Immunoaffinity clean-up combined with 32P-postlabelling analysis of 1,N6-ethenoadenine and 3,N4-ethenocytosine in DNA. Guichard, Y., Nair, J., Barbin, A., Bartsch, H. IARC Sci. Publ. (1993) [Pubmed]
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