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Chemical Compound Review

brofaromin     4-(7-bromo-5-methoxy- benzofuran-2...

Synonyms: Brofaremine, Brofaromina, Brofaromine, Brofarominum, Consonar (TN), ...
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Disease relevance of Brofaremine

  • Is there a role for selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy in bulimia nervosa? A placebo-controlled trial of brofaromine [1].
  • Side effects more common with brofaromine than placebo included insomnia, dizziness, dry mouth, anorexia, tinnitus, and tremor [2].
  • This study reports the effect of the MAO-A inhibitors, pirlindole (PIR), dehydropirlindole (DHP), brofaromine (BRO) and moclobemide (MCL) on primary-cultured brain cells exposed to iron-mediated toxicity [3].

Psychiatry related information on Brofaremine


High impact information on Brofaremine


Chemical compound and disease context of Brofaremine


Biological context of Brofaremine

  • The specificity of brofaromine to inhibit deamination is limited to MAO-A, since no reduction in platelet MAO activity was measurable [12].
  • Influence of age, frailty and liver function on the pharmacokinetics of brofaromine [13].
  • Compared to EM, PM had significantly longer t1/2 (136%) and larger AUC(0-infinity) (110%) of the parent compound brofaromine and a lower Cmax (69%) and AUC (0-72 h) (40%) of its O-desmethyl metabolite [14].
  • Five potential MAO-A inhibitors--harmine, N-methyl-harmine, harmaline, brofaromine, and clorgyline--were labelled with 11C and their brain kinetics evaluated in vivo in rhesus monkey using PET [15].

Anatomical context of Brofaremine


Associations of Brofaremine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Brofaremine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Brofaremine

  • Labeling experiments with radioactive brofaromine indicated that there was a high degree of non-specific binding but that no significant radioactivity remained associated with the enzyme on SDS-PAGE [27].
  • The biologic assay, however, overestimated brofaromine by a factor of two in acute kinetic experiments with healthy volunteers as compared to a chromatographic technique, although both methods significantly correlated (r = 0.928) [28].
  • The data of two control-group studies on brofaromine vs. imipramine were reanalyzed, the first, comprising 224 non-elderly and the second 195 elderly patients [29].
  • Determination of the new monoamine oxidase inhibitor brofaromine and its major metabolite in biological material by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection [30].
  • Brofaromine (CGP 11 305 A): estimation of plasma concentrations by a biologic technique as compared to liquid chromatography [28].


  1. Is there a role for selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy in bulimia nervosa? A placebo-controlled trial of brofaromine. Kennedy, S.H., Goldbloom, D.S., Ralevski, E., Davis, C., D'Souza, J.D., Lofchy, J. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Brofaromine for social phobia: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Lott, M., Greist, J.H., Jefferson, J.W., Kobak, K.A., Katzelnick, D.J., Katz, R.J., Schaettle, S.C. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Pirlindole and dehydropirlindole protect rat cultured neuronal cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death through a mechanism unrelated to MAO-A inhibition. Boland, A., Gérardy, J., Mossay, D., Delapierre, D., Seutin, V. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Personality traits in social phobia, II: Changes during drug treatment. Fahlén, T. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. A double-blind comparative study of brofaromine and fluvoxamine in outpatients with panic disorder. van Vliet, I.M., den Boer, J.A., Westenberg, H.G., Slaap, B.R. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center study of brofaromine in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Baker, D.G., Diamond, B.I., Gillette, G., Hamner, M., Katzelnick, D., Keller, T., Mellman, T.A., Pontius, E., Rosenthal, M., Tucker, P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. MAO inhibitors in panic disorder: clinical effects of treatment with brofaromine. A double blind placebo controlled study. van Vliet, I.M., Westenberg, H.G., Den Boer, J.A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by phenelzine and brofaromine in healthy volunteers. Bieck, P.R., Firkusny, L., Schick, C., Antonin, K.H., Nilsson, E., Schulz, R., Schwenk, M., Wollmann, H. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of brofaremine (CGP 11 305A), a short-acting, reversible, and selective inhibitor of MAO-A on sleep, nocturnal penile tumescence and nocturnal hormonal secretion in three healthy volunteers. Steiger, A., Holsboer, F., Benkert, O. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Social phobia: the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the monoamine oxidase -A and serotonin uptake inhibitor brofaromine. A double-blind placebo-controlled study. Fahlén, T., Nilsson, H.L., Borg, K., Humble, M., Pauli, U. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Correlations of plasma and urinary phenylacetic acid and phenylethylamine concentrations with eating behavior and mood rating scores in brofaromine-treated women with bulimia nervosa. Davis, B.A., Kennedy, S.H., D'Souza, J., Durden, D.A., Goldbloom, D.S., Boulton, A.A. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Results of an open clinical trial of brofaromine (CGP 11 305 A), a competitive, selective, and short-acting inhibitor of MAO-A in major endogenous depression. Steiger, A., Holsboer, F., Gerken, A., Demisch, L., Benkert, O. Pharmacopsychiatry (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of age, frailty and liver function on the pharmacokinetics of brofaromine. Zeeh, J., Fuchs, L., Bergmann, W., Antonin, K.H., Degel, F., Bieck, P., Platt, D. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of cytochrome P4502D6 in the metabolism of brofaromine. A new selective MAO-A inhibitor. Feifel, N., Kucher, K., Fuchs, L., Jedrychowski, M., Schmidt, E., Antonin, K.H., Bieck, P.R., Gleiter, C.H. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Synthesis of some 11C-labelled MAO-A inhibitors and their in vivo uptake kinetics in rhesus monkey brain. Bergström, M., Westerberg, G., Kihlberg, T., Långström, B. Nucl. Med. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. The monoamine oxidase inhibiting properties of CGP 11305 A. Waldmeier, P.C., Felner, A.E., Tipton, K.F. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. The reversible MAO inhibitor, brofaromine, inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Waldmeier, P.C., Stöcklin, K. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. The effects of brofaromine, a reversible MAO-A inhibitor, on extracellular serotonin in the raphe nuclei and frontal cortex of freely moving rats. Celada, P., Bel, N., Artigas, F. J. Neural Transm. Suppl. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A moclobemide and brofaromine for the treatment of depression. Lotufo-Neto, F., Trivedi, M., Thase, M.E. Neuropsychopharmacology (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of L-deprenyl, its structural analogues and some monoamine oxidase inhibitors on dopamine uptake. Fang, J., Yu, P.H. Neuropharmacology (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Enhancement of 5-HT-induced anorexia: a test of the reversibility of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Fletcher, P.J., Yu, P.H. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Monoamine oxidase-A inhibitors and dopamine metabolism in rat caudatus: evidence that an increased cytosolic level of dopamine displaces reversible monoamine oxidase-A inhibitors in vivo. Colzi, A., D'Agostini, F., Cesura, A.M., Borroni, E., Da Prada, M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Reversibility of the interaction of CGP 11305 A with MAO A in vivo. Waldmeier, P.C., Feldtrauer, J.J., Stoecklin, K., Paul, E. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Regional action of brofaromine on rat brain MAO-A and MAO-B. Gerardy, J., Dresse, A. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Urinary excretion of O-methylated catecholamines, tyramine and phenyl-ethylamine by volunteers treated with tranylcypromine and CGP 11305 A. Waldmeier, P.C., Antonin, K.H., Feldtrauer, J.J., Grunenwald, C., Paul, E., Lauber, J., Bieck, P. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Clinical, biochemical and psychometric findings with the new MAO-A-inhibitors moclobemide and brofaromine in patients with major depressive disorder. Laux, G., Classen, W., Sofic, E., Becker, T., Riederer, P., Lesch, K.P., Struck, M., Beckmann, H. J. Neural Transm. Suppl. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. The inhibition of monoamine oxidase by brofaromine. Anderson, M.C., Waldmeier, P.C., Tipton, K.F. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Brofaromine (CGP 11 305 A): estimation of plasma concentrations by a biologic technique as compared to liquid chromatography. Fritze, J., Becker, T., Ziegler, V., Laux, G., Bieck, P., Sofic, E., Riederer, P. J. Neural Transm. Suppl. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. How to assess the onset of antidepressant effect: comparison of global ratings and findings based on depression scales. Möller, H.J., Müller, H., Volz, H.P. Pharmacopsychiatry (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Determination of the new monoamine oxidase inhibitor brofaromine and its major metabolite in biological material by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Schneider, W., Keller, B., Degen, P.H. J. Chromatogr. (1989) [Pubmed]
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