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Chemical Compound Review

Cytalopram     1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1- (4...

Synonyms: Celapram, Seropram, Temperax, Bonitrile, Ciprapine, ...
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Disease relevance of citalopram


Psychiatry related information on citalopram


High impact information on citalopram

  • We investigated the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on uncontrolled crying in stroke patients in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Common sites of action for citalopram and cognitive-behavioral treatment of social anxiety were observed in the amygdala, hippocampus, and neighboring cortical areas, ie, brain regions subserving bodily defense reactions to threat [5].
  • HTR2A encodes the serotonin 2A receptor, which is downregulated by citalopram [10].
  • We searched for genetic predictors of treatment outcome in 1,953 patients with major depressive disorder who were treated with the antidepressant citalopram in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives for Depression (STAR*D) study and were prospectively assessed [10].
  • The order of affinities of these drugs was identical in the locus coeruleus and dorsal and median raphe and was characteristic of binding to NETs (desipramine > imipramine > citalopram) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of citalopram


Biological context of citalopram


Anatomical context of citalopram


Associations of citalopram with other chemical compounds

  • Despite a pronounced increase in plasma prolactin and two subjects reporting hot flushes compatible with an 5-HT-induced adverse effect, cortical [18F]altanserin binding was insensitive to the citalopram challenge, even after pindolol pretreatment [25].
  • At baseline, all patients met the criteria for a major depressive episode according to DSM-IV and had received citalopram or paroxetine during a minimum of 4 weeks without responding to the treatment [26].
  • These results suggest that the time course of the gradual return of presumed 5-HT neuronal firing activity, which was reported to account for the delayed effect of SSRI on 5-HT transmission, is congruent with the earlier onset of action of escitalopram vs citalopram in validated animal models of depression and anxiety [27].
  • Receipt of amitriptyline or sertraline as initial medication was associated with a per capita increase (p < or = 0.05) in health service utilization (17% and 9%, respectively) relative to citalopram [28].
  • In total, 357 outpatients with MDD were randomized to treatment with reboxetine 8-10 mg or citalopram 20-40 mg per day during 24 weeks [29].

Gene context of citalopram

  • Citalopram produces mild inhibition of CYP2D6 [30].
  • Here, we report the inhibitory effects of various antidepressants: imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, clomipramine, maprotiline, and citalopram, on GIRK channels [31].
  • In contrast, citalopram (10 mg/kg i.p., twice daily for 28 days) caused a 100% increase in (125)I-PYY binding in CA, CA3 and DG while levels of preproNPY mRNA and extracellular NPY in the hippocampus were unaffected [32].
  • We had previously reported an association between variation on the SERT gene (SLC6A4) and clinical remission after citalopram treatment [33].
  • Metabolism of citalopram enantiomers in CYP2C19/CYP2D6 phenotyped panels of healthy Swedes [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of citalopram


  1. Citalopram toxicity. Personne, M., Persson, H., Sjöberg, E. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Symptoms and signs of severe citalopram overdose. Grundemar, L., Wohlfart, B., Lagerstedt, C., Bengtsson, F., Eklundh, G. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia: antidepressants. Max, M.B. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. A controlled crossover study of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in irritable bowel syndrome. Tack, J., Broekaert, D., Fischler, B., Oudenhove, L.V., Gevers, A.M., Janssens, J. Gut (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furmark, T., Tillfors, M., Marteinsdottir, I., Fischer, H., Pissiota, A., Långström, B., Fredrikson, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy for treatment of depression in active injection drug users. Stein, M.D., Solomon, D.A., Herman, D.S., Anthony, J.L., Ramsey, S.E., Anderson, B.J., Miller, I.W. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Efficacy and tolerability of citalopram in the treatment of late-life anxiety disorders: results from an 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lenze, E.J., Mulsant, B.H., Shear, M.K., Dew, M.A., Miller, M.D., Pollock, B.G., Houck, P., Tracey, B., Reynolds, C.F. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. A proton MRSI study of brain N-acetylaspartate level after 12 weeks of citalopram treatment in drug-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Jang, J.H., Kwon, J.S., Jang, D.P., Moon, W.J., Lee, J.M., Ha, T.H., Chung, E.C., Kim, I.Y., Kim, S.I. The American journal of psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Citalopram for post-stroke pathological crying. Andersen, G., Vestergaard, K., Riis, J.O. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Variation in the Gene Encoding the Serotonin 2A Receptor Is Associated with Outcome of Antidepressant Treatment. McMahon, F.J., Buervenich, S., Charney, D., Lipsky, R., Rush, A.J., Wilson, A.F., Sorant, A.J., Papanicolaou, G.J., Laje, G., Fava, M., Trivedi, M.H., Wisniewski, S.R., Manji, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Pharmacology and distribution of norepinephrine transporters in the human locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei. Ordway, G.A., Stockmeier, C.A., Cason, G.W., Klimek, V. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram for the treatment of major depression in children and adolescents. Wagner, K.D., Robb, A.S., Findling, R.L., Jin, J., Gutierrez, M.M., Heydorn, W.E. The American journal of psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparison of citalopram, perphenazine, and placebo for the acute treatment of psychosis and behavioral disturbances in hospitalized, demented patients. Pollock, B.G., Mulsant, B.H., Rosen, J., Sweet, R.A., Mazumdar, S., Bharucha, A., Marin, R., Jacob, N.J., Huber, K.A., Kastango, K.B., Chew, M.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Serotonin transporter inhibitors protect against hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Marcos, E., Adnot, S., Pham, M.H., Nosjean, A., Raffestin, B., Hamon, M., Eddahibi, S. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Neuroimmune and cortisol changes in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and placebo treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Tucker, P., Ruwe, W.D., Masters, B., Parker, D.E., Hossain, A., Trautman, R.P., Wyatt, D.B. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of diazepam, citalopram, methadone and naloxone on PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in the rat social interaction test. Sams-Dodd, F. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Augmentation of serotonin enhances pleasant and suppresses unpleasant cortical electrophysiological responses to visual emotional stimuli in humans. Kemp, A.H., Gray, M.A., Silberstein, R.B., Armstrong, S.M., Nathan, P.J. Neuroimage (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. High affinity recognition of serotonin transporter antagonists defined by species-scanning mutagenesis. An aromatic residue in transmembrane domain I dictates species-selective recognition of citalopram and mazindol. Barker, E.L., Perlman, M.A., Adkins, E.M., Houlihan, W.J., Pristupa, Z.B., Niznik, H.B., Blakely, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. siRNA-mediated knockdown of the serotonin transporter in the adult mouse brain. Thakker, D.R., Natt, F., Hüsken, D., van der Putten, H., Maier, R., Hoyer, D., Cryan, J.F. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro biotransformation of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram, its enantiomers and demethylated metabolites by monoamine oxidase in rat and human brain preparations. Kosel, M., Gnerre, C., Voirol, P., Amey, M., Rochat, B., Bouras, C., Testa, B., Baumann, P. Mol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Hiemke, C., Härtter, S. Pharmacol. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Antidepressant drug treatment modifies the neural processing of nonconscious threat cues. Harmer, C.J., Mackay, C.E., Reid, C.B., Cowen, P.J., Goodwin, G.M. Biol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Citalopram and breast-feeding: serum concentration and side effects in the infant. Schmidt, K., Olesen, O.V., Jensen, P.N. Biol. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Serotonin reuptake inhibition by citalopram in rat strains differing for their emotionality. Pollier, F., Sarre, S., Aguerre, S., Ebinger, G., Mormède, P., Michotte, Y., Chaouloff, F. Neuropsychopharmacology (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. [18F]altanserin binding to human 5HT2A receptors is unaltered after citalopram and pindolol challenge. Pinborg, L.H., Adams, K.H., Yndgaard, S., Hasselbalch, S.G., Holm, S., Kristiansen, H., Paulson, O.B., Knudsen, G.M. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of buspirone on sexual dysfunction in depressed patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Landén, M., Eriksson, E., Agren, H., Fahlén, T. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of acute and long-term administration of escitalopram and citalopram on serotonin neurotransmission: an in vivo electrophysiological study in rat brain. El Mansari, M., Sánchez, C., Chouvet, G., Renaud, B., Haddjeri, N. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Economic appraisal of citalopram in the management of single-episode depression. Sclar, D.A., Skaer, T.L., Robison, L.M., Galin, R.S. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Efficacy and tolerability of reboxetine compared with citalopram: a double-blind study in patients with major depressive disorder. Langworth, S., Bodlund, O., Agren, H. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Clinically relevant pharmacology of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. An overview with emphasis on pharmacokinetics and effects on oxidative drug metabolism. Preskorn, S.H. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Inhibition of G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels by various antidepressant drugs. Kobayashi, T., Washiyama, K., Ikeda, K. Neuropsychopharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Involvement of hippocampal neuropeptide Y in mediating the chronic actions of lithium, electroconvulsive stimulation and citalopram. Husum, H., Mikkelsen, J.D., Hogg, S., Mathé, A.A., Mørk, A. Neuropharmacology (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Evidence for a combined genetic effect of the 5-HT(1A) receptor and serotonin transporter genes in the clinical outcome of major depressive patients treated with citalopram. Arias, B., Catalán, R., Gastó, C., Gutiérrez, B., Fañanás, L. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Metabolism of citalopram enantiomers in CYP2C19/CYP2D6 phenotyped panels of healthy Swedes. Herrlin, K., Yasui-Furukori, N., Tybring, G., Widén, J., Gustafsson, L.L., Bertilsson, L. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Normalization of enhanced fear recognition by acute SSRI treatment in subjects with a previous history of depression. Bhagwagar, Z., Cowen, P.J., Goodwin, G.M., Harmer, C.J. The American journal of psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Cerebral blood flow changes after treatment of social phobia with the neurokinin-1 antagonist GR205171, citalopram, or placebo. Furmark, T., Appel, L., Michelgård, A., Wahlstedt, K., Ahs, F., Zancan, S., Jacobsson, E., Flyckt, K., Grohp, M., Bergström, M., Pich, E.M., Nilsson, L.G., Bani, M., Långström, B., Fredrikson, M. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Citalopram in pregnancy and lactation. Heikkinen, T., Ekblad, U., Kero, P., Ekblad, S., Laine, K. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
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