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MeSH Review

Penile Erection

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Disease relevance of Penile Erection


Psychiatry related information on Penile Erection


High impact information on Penile Erection

  • Using behavioral tests, we found that Tat-3L4F or Ro600175 blocks conditioned place preference of THC or nicotine, and that Ro600175, but not Tat-3L4F, produces anxiogenic effects, penile erection, hypophagia and motor functional suppression [11].
  • Antagonism of Rho-kinase stimulates rat penile erection via a nitric oxide-independent pathway [12].
  • Nitric oxide, released from non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic nerves, is considered the principle stimulator of cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation, however, the inhibition of vasoconstrictors (that is, norepinephrine and endothelin-1, refs. 5-9) cannot be ignored as a potential regulator of penile erection [12].
  • Nitric oxide: a physiologic mediator of penile erection [13].
  • These findings not only support the contention that VIP may be the principal neurotransmitter involved in penile erection, but also suggest that depletion of this powerful vasodilatory peptide may play a key role in the development of penile impotence [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Penile Erection


Biological context of Penile Erection


Anatomical context of Penile Erection


Associations of Penile Erection with chemical compounds


Gene context of Penile Erection

  • CONCLUSIONS: eNOS mediates NO-dependent penile erection in nNOS- animals and normal penile erection [35].
  • The contribution of the neuronal and endothelial isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and eNOS, respectively) in the synthesis of nitric oxide as a mediator of penile erection, at the levels of both the penile corpora cavernosa and the hypothalamic regions that control the erectile response, are well established [36].
  • The pleiotropic effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on the physiology and pathology of penile erection [36].
  • Our results suggest that eNOS contributes significantly to the physiology of penile erection [37].
  • The data provide a molecular explanation for VEGF stimulatory effect on penile erection, which involves phosphorylated eNOS (Serine 1177) mediation [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Penile Erection


  1. Rigiscan evaluation of specific nervous impairment in patients with diabetes and erectile disorders. Bax, G., Marin, N., Piarulli, F., Lamonica, M., Bellio, F., Fedele, D. Diabetes Care (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Nitric oxide and penile erection: is erectile dysfunction another manifestation of vascular disease? Sullivan, M.E., Thompson, C.S., Dashwood, M.R., Khan, M.A., Jeremy, J.Y., Morgan, R.J., Mikhailidis, D.P. Cardiovasc. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Pathophysiology of prolonged penile erection associated with trazodone use. Saenz de Tejada, I., Ware, J.C., Blanco, R., Pittard, J.T., Nadig, P.W., Azadzoi, K.M., Krane, R.J., Goldstein, I. J. Urol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of the antidepressant trazodone, a 5-HT 2A/2C receptor antagonist, on dopamine-dependent behaviors in rats. Balsara, J.J., Jadhav, S.A., Gaonkar, R.K., Gaikwad, R.V., Jadhav, J.H. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of SR 48692, a selective non-peptide neurotensin receptor antagonist, on two dopamine-dependent behavioural responses in mice and rats. Poncelet, M., Souilhac, J., Gueudet, C., Terranova, J.P., Gully, D., Le Fur, G., Soubrié, P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Placing erection in context: the reflexogenic-psychogenic dichotomy reconsidered. Sachs, B.D. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. The acute effects of nefazodone, trazodone and buspirone on sleep and sleep-related penile tumescence in normal subjects. Ware, J.C., Rose, F.V., McBrayer, R.H. Sleep. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Hormone treatment facilitates penile erection in castrated rats after sleep deprivation and cocaine. Andersen, M.L., Bignotto, M., Tufik, S. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Influence of imidazole on behavioral effects induced by dopaminergic agonists in rats. Francesca, F., Baggio, G. Life Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Cavallini, G., Caracciolo, S., Vitali, G., Modenini, F., Biagiotti, G. Urology (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Disruption of PTEN coupling with 5-HT2C receptors suppresses behavioral responses induced by drugs of abuse. Ji, S.P., Zhang, Y., Van Cleemput, J., Jiang, W., Liao, M., Li, L., Wan, Q., Backstrom, J.R., Zhang, X. Nat. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Antagonism of Rho-kinase stimulates rat penile erection via a nitric oxide-independent pathway. Chitaley, K., Wingard, C.J., Clinton Webb, R., Branam, H., Stopper, V.S., Lewis, R.W., Mills, T.M. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Nitric oxide: a physiologic mediator of penile erection. Burnett, A.L., Lowenstein, C.J., Bredt, D.S., Chang, T.S., Snyder, S.H. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Decrease of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the penises from impotent men. Gu, J., Polak, J.M., Lazarides, M., Morgan, R., Pryor, J.P., Marangos, P.J., Blank, M.A., Bloom, S.R. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of penile duplex ultrasonography with nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring for the evaluation of erectile impotence. Shabsigh, R., Fishman, I.J., Shotland, Y., Karacan, I., Dunn, J.K. J. Urol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptors in the effect of cocaine on sexual behaviour and stretching-yawning of male rats. Ferrari, F., Giuliani, D. Neuropharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of persistent penile erection and priapism using terbutaline. Shantha, T.R., Finnerty, D.P., Rodriquez, A.P. J. Urol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Sleep-related penile erections do not occur in rats during carbachol-induced rapid eye movement sleep. Gulia, K.K., Mallick, H.N., Kumar, V.M. Behav. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Role of the nitric oxide donor linsidomine chlorhydrate (SIN-1) in the diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction. Truss, M.C., Becker, A.J., Djamilian, M.H., Stief, C.G., Jonas, U. Urology (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. The effects of transdermal dihydrotestosterone in the aging male: a prospective, randomized, double blind study. Kunelius, P., Lukkarinen, O., Hannuksela, M.L., Itkonen, O., Tapanainen, J.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Psychosexual behavior in hypopituitary men: a controlled comparison of gonadotropin and testosterone replacement. Clopper, R.R., Voorhess, M.L., MacGillivray, M.H., Lee, P.A., Mills, B. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. The roles of nitric oxide in sexual function of male rats. Hull, E.M., Lumley, L.A., Matuszewich, L., Dominguez, J., Moses, J., Lorrain, D.S. Neuropharmacology (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Local suppressive effect of clonidine on penile erection in the dog. Lin, S.N., Yu, P.C., Yang, M.C., Chang, L.S., Chiang, B.N., Kuo, J.S. J. Urol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Androgen-dependent nitric oxide release in rat penis correlates with levels of constitutive nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes. Marin, R., Escrig, A., Abreu, P., Mas, M. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Age-related changes in apomorphine-induced erections. Varrin, S., Heaton, J.P. Neurobiol. Aging (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Dopaminergic neurotransmission at the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus in central regulation of penile erection in the rat. Chen, K.K., Chan, J.Y., Chang, L.S. J. Urol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Hippocampal noradrenergic neurotransmission in concurrent EEG desynchronization and inhibition of penile erection induced by cocaine in the rat. Chang, A.Y., Chan, J.Y., Chan, S.H. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. The cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR-141716A induces penile erection in male rats: involvement of paraventricular glutamic acid and nitric oxide. Melis, M.R., Succu, S., Mascia, M.S., Sanna, F., Melis, T., Castelli, M.P., Argiolas, A. Neuropharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. The role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, endothelium and nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurotransmission in canine penile erection. Trigo-Rocha, F., Hsu, G.L., Donatucci, C.F., Lue, T.F. J. Urol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Cimetidine, but not ranitidine, inhibits penile erections in rats. Ferrari, F. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Transdermal nitrate, penile erection, and spousal headache. Talley, J.D., Crawley, I.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Activation of dopamine D4 receptors by ABT-724 induces penile erection in rats. Brioni, J.D., Moreland, R.B., Cowart, M., Hsieh, G.C., Stewart, A.O., Hedlund, P., Donnelly-Roberts, D.L., Nakane, M., Lynch, J.J., Kolasa, T., Polakowski, J.S., Osinski, M.A., Marsh, K., Andersson, K.E., Sullivan, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Akt-dependent phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase mediates penile erection. Hurt, K.J., Musicki, B., Palese, M.A., Crone, J.K., Becker, R.E., Moriarity, J.L., Snyder, S.H., Burnett, A.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Erectile dysfunction in cyclic GMP-dependent kinase I-deficient mice. Hedlund, P., Aszodi, A., Pfeifer, A., Alm, P., Hofmann, F., Ahmad, M., Fassler, R., Andersson, K.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Nitric oxide-dependent penile erection in mice lacking neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Burnett, A.L., Nelson, R.J., Calvin, D.C., Liu, J.X., Demas, G.E., Klein, S.L., Kriegsfeld, L.J., Dawson, V.L., Dawson, T.M., Snyder, S.H. Mol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. The pleiotropic effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on the physiology and pathology of penile erection. Gonzalez-Cadavid, N.F., Rajfer, J. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Gene transfer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase partially restores nitric oxide synthesis and erectile function in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Bivalacqua, T.J., Usta, M.F., Champion, H.C., Adams, D., Namara, D.B., Abdel-Mageed, A.B., Kadowitz, P.J., Hellstrom, W.J. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced penile erection. Musicki, B., Palese, M.A., Crone, J.K., Burnett, A.L. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Central control of penile erection: role of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Argiolas, A., Melis, M.R. Prog. Neurobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Dihydrotestosterone is the active androgen in the maintenance of nitric oxide-mediated penile erection in the rat. Lugg, J.A., Rajfer, J., González-Cadavid, N.F. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  41. The role of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a neurotransmitter in canine penile erection: a combined in vivo and immunohistochemical study. Juenemann, K.P., Lue, T.F., Luo, J.A., Jadallah, S.A., Nunes, L.L., Tanagho, E.A. J. Urol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  42. The oral efficacy of vardenafil hydrochloride for inducing penile erection in a conscious rabbit model. Bischoff, E., Niewoehner, U., Haning, H., Es Sayed, M., Schenke, T., Schlemmer, K.H. J. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  43. Oxytocin-induced penile erection and yawning in male rats: effect of neonatal monosodium glutamate and hypophysectomy. Argiolas, A., Melis, M.R., Mauri, A., Gessa, G.L. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1989) [Pubmed]
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