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Gene Review

PTH  -  parathyroid hormone

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of PTH


Psychiatry related information on PTH

  • These oscillations, triggered by the perturbation imposed by growth, are the result of the dual action of parathyroid hormone on bone on the one hand and on intestinal calcium absorption via the 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol synthesizing system on the other and the difference in the response time between the two subsystems [6].

High impact information on PTH


Chemical compound and disease context of PTH


Biological context of PTH

  • The middle and carboxyl-terminal portions of chicken PTH, however, differ considerably from the mammalian hormones and include deletions of sequences conserved in mammalian PTH and insertions of novel peptide sequences [11].
  • In order to characterize an avian parathyroid hormone gene, a lambda gt10 cDNA library constructed from chicken parathyroid gland mRNA was screened with a human preproparathyroid hormone (preproPTH) cDNA probe [11].
  • In conclusion, these data indicate that PTH stimulation of bsp gene expression is specific to osteoblasts and mediated by changing cellular cAMP/PKA levels [12].
  • Co-transfection of an expression plasmid encoding heat-stable inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, a peptide inhibitor of PKA, decreased both the basal and PTH-induced bsp transcription, while co-expression of the catalytic subunit of PKA-induced bsp expression 3-fold [12].
  • A half-cAMP response element site in the bsp promoter was identified as the cis-acting element that mediated the PTH response by the transient transfections with reporter constructs containing nested deletions of the promoter or a heterologous promoter containing the cAMP response element [12].

Anatomical context of PTH

  • Undifferentiated cells obtained from limb buds prior to appearance of hormonal responsiveness were cultured and were found to develop a PTH-activated adenylate cyclase in vitro [13].
  • The enzyme did not respond to other hormones, and myoblast cultures did not develop a PTH-activated adenylate cyclase, indicating that a true bone adenylate cyclase was being measured [13].
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) caused osteoclasts to increase in area about 40%, and calcitonin (CT) caused a decrease in area also of about 40% [14].
  • The results suggest that the PTH receptor binding in the calvaria and the kidney is affected by ovarian steroid hormones and may play a role in maintaining the calcium homeostasis in the egg-laying hen [15].
  • Using the P19 EC cell line, we have characterized promoter elements of the murine PTH/PTHrP-receptor gene that are involved in this RA-induced expression [16].

Associations of PTH with chemical compounds

  • With deprivation of vitamin D, the progressive increase in 1 alpha-hydroxylase correlated inversely with circulating levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-[OH]2D), and the decreasing calcemic response to PTH correlated inversely with the responsiveness of 1 alpha-hydroxylase to PTH (in chicks deprived of vitamin D for 1-10 d) [2].
  • In addition, a temporal sequence of development of hormone response was observed, with a PTH-activated adenylate cyclase appearing earlier than the calcitonin-activated enzyme [13].
  • PTH and PGE2 treatment did not affect the cAMP response to forskolin and cholera toxin [3].
  • Subsequent addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP to PTH- or to CT-treated cells resulted in a further change of 40 and 30%, respectively [14].
  • The cells were treated with acetazolamide (10 x 4 M and 10(-7) M), CT (1 mU/ml and 0.31 mU/ml) and PTH (6.5 U/ml and 0.40 U/ml) for 1, 3, 6, and 18 hr [17].

Physical interactions of PTH


Regulatory relationships of PTH


Other interactions of PTH

  • They further suggest that although protein kinase C is capable of stimulating the gene by itself, it plays a minimal role in mediating the PTH induction of bone sialoprotein [12].
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor bindings were examined in the membrane fraction of the calvaria and the kidney of the hen by the use of [125I]PTH-related protein (PTHrP) binding assays [15].
  • In another experiment in which no vitamin D source was given and the diets contained increasing levels of dietary calcium, plasma calcium increased significantly (5.5 vs. 7 mg/dl), while PTH mRNA decreased by 40% and VDR mRNA increased by 60% [20].
  • PTH also affected matrix production by the growth plate chondrocytes causing a twofold stimulation of proteoglycan synthesis as determined by the rate of 35SO4 incorporated into matrix macromolecules [21].
  • In addition, isolated avian flexor digitorum profundus TSC and TIF cells were subjected to cyclic stretching at 1 Hz, 5% average elongation for 6 h, +/- PDGF-BB, IGF-I, TGF-beta 1, PTH, estrogen, PGE2, or no drug and/or no load. mRNA was then collected and samples were subjected to differential display analysis [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTH

  • Northern blot analysis of chicken parathyroid mRNA, using both bovine and chicken cDNA probes, showed that the mRNA (2.3 kilobases) for chicken hormone precursor was approximately 3 times the size of mRNA for mammalian prepro-PTH [1].
  • The presence of PTH in the cocultures or conditioned media from PTH-treated calvariae did not significantly alter the level of expression [23].
  • The time course of OC marker expression was monitored by ELISA and the requirement for live bone and PTH was investigated [23].
  • Treatment with PTH caused 30-60% increase in PKI activity, and cell cultures that were grown in medium containing either 0.5 or 2 mM calcium chloride had similar PKI activities [24].
  • PTH bioactivity during the egg-laying cycle of the chicken has been measured by the cytochemical bioassay for PTH [25].


  1. Nucleotide sequence of the DNA complementary to avian (chicken) preproparathyroid hormone mRNA and the deduced sequence of the hormone precursor. Russell, J., Sherwood, L.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Vitamin D status regulates 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase and its responsiveness to parathyroid hormone in the chick. Booth, B.E., Tsai, H.C., Morris, R.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Modulation of responsiveness of the adenylate cyclase system in avian chondroprogenitor cells by pertussis toxin, PTH, and PGE2. Pines, M., Yosif, B., Hurwitz, S. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of vitamin D status on the activity of carbonic anhydrase in chicken epiphysis and kidney. Drewe, J., Dietsch, P., Keck, E. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Chicken parathyroid hormone gene expression in response to gastrin, omeprazole, ergocalciferol, and restricted food intake. Gagnemo-Persson, R., Samuelsson, A., Hâkanson, R., Persson, P. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Calcium dynamics: a model system approach. Hurwitz, S., Fishman, S., Talpaz, H. J. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Vitamin D3 metabolites and PTH synergistically stimulate bone formation of chick embryonic femur in vitro. Endo, H., Kiyoki, M., Kawashima, K., Naruchi, T., Hashimoto, Y. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Potent mitogenic effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on embryonic chick and rabbit chondrocytes. Differential effects of age on growth, proteoglycan, and cyclic AMP responses of chondrocytes to PTH. Koike, T., Iwamoto, M., Shimazu, A., Nakashima, K., Suzuki, F., Kato, Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Parathyroid receptor gene expression by epiphyseal growth plates in rickets and tibial dyschondroplasia. Ben-Bassat, S., Genina, O., Lavelin, I., Leach, R.M., Pines, M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Blood ionic calcium response to hypocalcemia in the chicken induced by ethyleneglycol-bis-(B-aminoethylether) -N,N'-tetraacetic acid: role of the parathyroids. Koch, J., Wideman, R.F., Buss, E.G. Poult. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNAs encoding chicken preproparathyroid hormone. Khosla, S., Demay, M., Pines, M., Hurwitz, S., Potts, J.T., Kronenberg, H.M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Signal transduction pathways mediating parathyroid hormone stimulation of bone sialoprotein gene expression in osteoblasts. Yang, R., Gerstenfeld, L.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Development of parathyroid hormone- and calcitonin-activated adenylate cyclases in embryonic chicken limb and in cultured cells from embryonic chicken limb. Zull, J.E., Krug, S., Abel, D., Caplan, A.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP on osteoclast area in cultured chick tibia. Pandalai, S., Gay, C.V. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes in parathyroid hormone receptor binding affinity during egg laying: implications for calcium homeostasis in chicken. Yasuoka, T., Kawashima, M., Takahashi, T., Iwata, A., Oka, N., Tanaka, K. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of a retinoic acid-inducible element in the murine PTH/PTHrP (parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide) receptor gene. Karperien, M., Farih-Sips, H., Hendriks, J.A., Lanske, B., Papapoulos, S.E., Abou-Samra, A.B., Löwik, C.W., Defize, L.H. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of isolated and cultured chick osteoclasts: the effects of acetazolamide, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone on acid production. Hunter, S.J., Schraer, H., Gay, C.V. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Inhibition of PTH receptor binding and PTH mediated adenylate cyclase activity by somatostatin. Jüppner, H., Hesch, R.D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Selective activation of diaphyseal chondrocytes by parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and N6,O2-dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphoric acid in proteoglycan synthesis of chick embryonic femur cultivated in vitro. Kawashima, K., Iwata, S., Endo, H. Endocrinol. Jpn. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Interaction between calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the regulation of preproparathyroid hormone and vitamin D receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in avian parathyroids. Russell, J., Bar, A., Sherwood, L.M., Hurwitz, S. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential effects of parathyroid hormone on chick growth plate and articular chondrocytes. Crabb, I.D., O'Keefe, R.J., Puzas, J.E., Rosier, R.N. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Mechanical load stimulates expression of novel genes in vivo and in vitro in avian flexor tendon cells. Banes, A.J., Horesovsky, G., Larson, C., Tsuzaki, M., Judex, S., Archambault, J., Zernicke, R., Herzog, W., Kelley, S., Miller, L. Osteoarthr. Cartil. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Osteoclast development in marrow cultured in calvaria-conditioned media. Oursler, M.J., Osdoby, P. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Hormonal regulation of chick kidney inhibitor of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Al-Abdaly, F.A., Henry, H.L. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Parathyroid hormone responses to calcium stress during eggshell calcification. van de Velde, J.P., Loveridge, N., Vermeiden, J.P. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
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