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Chemical Compound Review

Contour     copper; silver; tin

Synonyms: AC1O3SW9, 83666-98-2, Silver alloy, (Contour)
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Disease relevance of Contour

  • METHOD: Contour-detection thresholds and optotype acuity were measured in 17 newly diagnosed anisometropic amblyopes, in 6 patients with strabismic amblyopia, and in 4 patients with combined anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia [1].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 130 patients requiring insertion of ureteral stents during the treatment of urinary calculi were randomized to receive a stent composed of firm (Percuflex, group 1) or soft (Contour, group 2) polymer [2].
  • The arrhythmia discrimination results from this study group were compared to historical control group data from a recent clinical investigation of single-chamber Contour MD (Morphology Discrimination) and Angstrom MD ICDs without the Rate Branch feature [3].
  • OBJECTIVE:: We report the case of a patient successfully implanted with a Nucleus Contour cochlear implant after placement of a deep brain stimulator for Parkinson disease [4].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients (2M, 4F, mean age 30.3 years) with IPH presenting with splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and recurrent variceal bleeding were treated with PSE using gelatin sponge (four patients) or Contour particles (two patients) as embolization material [5].

Psychiatry related information on Contour

  • These data suggest that electrode design and/or perimodiolar position may reduce physiologic channel interaction in the cochlea and improve electrode pitch discrimination ability; however, this positive finding did not translate into significantly better speech perception ability for Contour subjects [6].
  • The Contour Test appears to offer a viable approach to clinical measurement of loudness perception: It has good patient acceptance and combines fairly rapid administration with acceptable reliability [7].
  • One hundred one young women completed the DIM procedure and the Thompson and Gray (1995) Contour Drawing Rating Scale to measure self-ideal discrepancy and size perception accuracy components of body image [8].
  • Geriatric problem solving with adhesive dentistry, using the Contour Strip and direct composite placement [9].

High impact information on Contour

  • Chromosomes of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum were fractionated on three pulse field gel electrophoresis systems (pulse field, orthogonal field and C.H.E.F. (Contour-clamped Homogeneous Electric Fields] into a series of 13 bands ranging from 0.1 Mb to over 2 Mb in size [10].
  • Parental adiposity was assessed with figure ratings derived from the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, and these were correlated with parental self-reported body mass index (BMI) in a subset of participants (r=0.66-0.79) [11].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Simulation of embolization from carotid angioplasty (n = 180) was performed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles (Contour; 150-1,000- micro m) in an open flow model simulating the aortic arch with a carotid bifurcation made from elastic silicone tubes [12].
  • Grossberg et al. have specified a filling-in model called the Boundary Contour System/Feature Contour System (BCS/FCS) [13].
  • These interruptions are usually areas of hypomineralization in enamel and dentin which are referred to as Striae of Retzius and Hunter Shreger bands in the enamel or Incremental Lines of von Ebner and Contour Lines of Owen in the case of the dentin [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Contour

  • This study compares coiling angle, electrical threshold levels, and speech perception measures with the Nucleus Contour Advance electrode array implanted using the new advance off stylet technique versus the Nucleus Contour electrode array implanted using the standard technique [15].

Biological context of Contour


Anatomical context of Contour

  • For this comparison eight Nuclears banded electrodes and 18 Contour electrodes were implanted in cadaver temporal bones using a realistic surgical exposure [20].
  • Evaluation of streamlined programming procedures for the Nucleus cochlear implant with the Contour electrode array [21].
  • Insertion of the Nucleus Contour electrode array resulted in instances of localized basilar membrane penetration causing the electrode array to move from the scala tympani into the scala vestibuli [22].
  • Radiographic analyses found that the Contour array lay closer to the modiolus, was more deeply inserted and spanned a larger fractional length of the basilar membrane than the straight banded-electrode array [23].
  • RESULTS: Contour plots of SD for most subject eyes showed high variability in steeply sloped areas of the disc and along large blood vessels, with low variability near the cup center [24].

Associations of Contour with other chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSIONS: Placement of either the CII Bionic Ear HiFocus I or Nucleus Contour cochlear implant electrode array in the perimodiolar position in young children resulted in less electrical current necessary to stimulate the auditory system [25].
  • Application of lubricants (glycerin and sorbelene) has the potential to lower the friction coefficient for Nucleus standard straight array (0.12 and 0.15) and for the Contour array (0.04 and 0.08) [26].
  • Three new "plasma calibrated" blood glucose meters (Abbott Precision Xcceed, Bayer Ascensia Contour and Roche Accu-Chek Aviva) were compared against laboratory venous plasma glucose measurements to determine their suitability for patient monitoring and diabetes diagnosis [27].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen human temporal bones were harvested up to 24 hours post mortem and implanted immediately with the Nucleus 24 Contour Advance cochlear implant electrode array [28].
  • Integration of Contour and Terminator Signals in Visual Area MT of Alert Macaque [29].

Gene context of Contour

  • A total of 343 shocks were assessed in 63 patients with ICDs: 16 Medtronic (MicroJewel II, model 7223Cx), 14 CPI (Mini II, model 1762), and 33 Ventritex (Cadet and Contour, models V-115 and V-145) [30].
  • Changes of Three-dimensional Back Contour Following Posterior Fusion for Idiopathic Scoliosis [31].
  • SETTING:: Academic university medical center PATIENTS:: One hundred one adults with bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss INTERVENTION:: Cochlear implantation with the Nucleus 24 Contour device [32].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Contour adjustment in severe congenital blepharoptosis surgery is better when it is not centered on the midline, but rather has a slight lateral displacement [33].
  • However, the differences between the Contour and Bambi methods were statistically significant for MCA (337.5 +/- 37.7 vs. 327.7 +/- 36.5), CV (0.32 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.05), and percentage of cells with six and seven sides, but not for the percentage of five-sided cells [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Contour

  • Embolizations were carried out within 3 days of surgery, with the patient under general anesthesia, with 150- to 250-microns Contour emboli [35].
  • The Derma-K and the Contour Er:YAG lasers were able to induce tissue contraction/desiccation similar to the CO(2) laser [36].
  • DESIGN: Phase 1 involved an examination of the clinical MAPs for the first 103 recipients implanted with the Contour electrode array in the Melbourne Cochlear Implant Clinic, to examine the ability to predict the entire MAP based on a smaller number of clinically determined T- and/or C-levels [21].
  • OBJECTIVE: This article presents the underlying rationale, normative data, and reliability data for a test of loudness perception (the Contour Test) that was devised for use in clinical hearing aid fitting [7].
  • The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the Contour Meniscus Arrow to the first-generation Meniscus Arrow and vertical or horizontal suture techniques [37].


  1. Recovery of contour integration in relation to LogMAR visual acuity during treatment of amblyopia in children. Chandna, A., Gonzalez-Martin, J.A., Norcia, A.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. A prospective randomized single-blind comparison of ureteral stents composed of firm and soft polymer. Joshi, H.B., Chitale, S.V., Nagarajan, M., Irving, S.O., Browning, A.J., Biyani, C.S., Burgess, N.A. J. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Clinical investigation of a new dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator with improved rhythm discrimination capabilities. Bailin, S.J., Niebauer, M., Tomassoni, G., Leman, R. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Cochlear implantation in a patient with bilateral deep brain stimulators. St Martin, M.B., Hirsch, B.E. Laryngoscope (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Partial splenic embolization in patients with idiopathic portal hypertension. Romano, M., Giojelli, A., Capuano, G., Pomponi, D., Salvatore, M. European journal of radiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Electrophysiologic channel interaction, electrode pitch ranking, and behavioral threshold in straight versus perimodiolar cochlear implant electrode arrays. Hughes, M.L., Abbas, P.J. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The contour test of loudness perception. Cox, R.M., Alexander, G.C., Taylor, I.M., Gray, G.A. Ear and hearing. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Multitrait-multimethod investigation of a novel body image measurement technique. Rowe, D.A., McDonald, S.M., Mahar, M.T., Raedeke, T.D. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Geriatric problem solving with adhesive dentistry, using the Contour Strip and direct composite placement. Belvedere, P.C. Texas dental journal. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Insertion of transformation vector DNA into different chromosomal sites of Dictyostelium discoideum as determined by pulse field electrophoresis. Cole, R.A., Williams, K.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Parental adiposity and cortisol awakening responses in young men and women. Steptoe, A., Wright, C.E., O'donnell, K., Brydon, L., Wardle, J. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of various cerebral protection devices used for carotid artery stent placement: an in vitro experiment. Müller-Hülsbeck, S., Jahnke, T., Liess, C., Glass, C., Grimm, J., Heller, M. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The temporal dynamics of brightness filling-in. Arrington, K.F. Vision Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Mineral metabolism and microstructural defects in primate teeth. Molnar, S., Ward, S.C. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Modiolar coiling, electrical thresholds, and speech perception after cochlear implantation using the nucleus contour advance electrode with the advance off stylet technique. Huang, T.C., Reitzen, S.D., Marrinan, M.S., Waltzman, S.B., Roland, J.T. Otol. Neurotol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. The nucleus contour electrode array: an electrophysiological study. Pasanisi, E., Vincenti, V., Bacciu, A., Guida, M., Bacciu, S. Laryngoscope (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparative study of cochlear damage with three perimodiolar electrode designs. Eshraghi, A.A., Yang, N.W., Balkany, T.J. Laryngoscope (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) versus non-contact tonometry (NCT): a comparison study. Burvenich, H., Burvenich, E., Vincent, C. Bulletin de la Société belge d'ophtalmologie. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions improve cardiac function in children after open-heart surgery. Schroth, M., Plank, C., Meissner, U., Eberle, K.P., Weyand, M., Cesnjevar, R., Dötsch, J., Rascher, W. Pediatrics (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. A temporal bone study of insertion trauma and intracochlear position of cochlear implant electrodes. I: Comparison of Nucleus banded and Nucleus Contour electrodes. Wardrop, P., Whinney, D., Rebscher, S.J., Roland, J.T., Luxford, W., Leake, P.A. Hear. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of streamlined programming procedures for the Nucleus cochlear implant with the Contour electrode array. Plant, K., Law, M.A., Whitford, L., Knight, M., Tari, S., Leigh, J., Pedley, K., Nel, E. Ear and hearing. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. The Nucleus Contour electrode array: a radiological and histological study. Richter, B., Aschendorff, A., Lohnstein, P., Husstedt, H., Nagursky, H., Laszig, R. Laryngoscope (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Psychophysical measures in patients fitted with Contour and straight Nucleus electrode arrays. Cohen, L.T., Saunders, E., Knight, M.R., Cowan, R.S. Hear. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Probability maps of sequential glaucoma-scope images help identify significant change. Yamada, N., Mills, R.P., Leen, M.M., Emond, M.J., Reynolds, A.C., Stanford, D.C. Journal of glaucoma. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Electrophysiologic effects of placing cochlear implant electrodes in a perimodiolar position in young children. Wackym, P.A., Firszt, J.B., Gaggl, W., Runge-Samuelson, C.L., Reeder, R.M., Raulie, J.C. Laryngoscope (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Determination of frictional conditions between electrode array and endosteum lining for use in cochlear implant models. Kha, H.N., Chen, B.K. Journal of biomechanics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. New "plasma referenced" POCT glucose monitoring systems-are they suitable for glucose monitoring and diagnosis of diabetes? Savoca, R., Jaworek, B., Huber, A.R. Clin. Chim. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Combining perimodiolar electrode placement and atraumatic insertion properties in cochlear implantation -- fact or fantasy? Adunka, O.F., Pillsbury, H.C., Kiefer, J. Acta Otolaryngol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Integration of Contour and Terminator Signals in Visual Area MT of Alert Macaque. Pack, C.C., Gartland, A.J., Born, R.T. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Significant differences in charge times among currently available implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Mann, D.E., Kelly, P.A., Robertson, A.D., Otto, L., Reiter, M.J. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Changes of Three-dimensional Back Contour Following Posterior Fusion for Idiopathic Scoliosis. Thometz, J., Liu, X.C., Reineck, J., Lyon, R., Tassone, C. Studies in health technology and informatics (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Implication of central asymmetry in speech processing on selecting the ear for cochlear implantation. Morris, L.G., Mallur, P.S., Roland, J.T., Waltzman, S.B., Lalwani, A.K. Otol. Neurotol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Quantification of palpebral fissure shape in severe congenital blepharoptosis. Cruz, A.A., Lucchezi, M.C. Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Morphometry of cells and guttae in subjects with normal or guttate endothelium with a contour detection algorithm. Giasson, C.J., Graham, A., Blouin, J.F., Solomon, L., Gresset, J., Melillo, M., Polse, K.A. Eye & contact lens. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Preoperative embolization of brain and spinal hemangioblastomas. Tampieri, D., Leblanc, R., TerBrugge, K. Neurosurgery (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Modulating the Er:YAG laser. Zachary, C.B. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. A new rigid biodegradable anchor for meniscus refixation: biomechanical evaluation. Zantop, T., Eggers, A.K., Musahl, V., Weimann, A., Hassenpflug, J., Petersen, W. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA. (2004) [Pubmed]
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