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Gene Review

C1D  -  C1D nuclear receptor corepressor

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: LRP1, Nuclear nucleic acid-binding protein C1D, Rrp47, SUN-CoR, SUNCOR, ...
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Disease relevance of C1D


High impact information on C1D


Biological context of C1D

  • Induction of apoptosis by overexpression of the DNA-binding and DNA-PK-activating protein C1D [8].
  • The expression of this gene must be tightly regulated because elevated levels of C1D protein, e.g. those induced by transient vector-dependent expression, result in apoptotic cell death [8].
  • Transient transfection experiments point to the presence of cis-acting repressing sequences on this LINE-1 element which reduce the transcriptional activity of the basal C1D promoter in human and murine cells by more than 95% [9].
  • In our sample (n = 618) nine phenotypes, Tf C1, C2, C3, C3-1, C2-1, C3-2, C1B, C2B and C1D, were observed and the following frequencies calculated: TfC1 = 0.77837; TfC2 = 0.1804; TfC3 = 0.03641; TfB = 0.0040; TfD = 0.0008 [10].
  • The v-jun oncogene encodes a nuclear DNA binding protein that functions as a transcription factor and is part of the activator protein 1 complex [11].

Anatomical context of C1D


Associations of C1D with chemical compounds

  • Sequence analysis revealed that this protein is C1D, the human homolog of the murine SUN-CoR protein which acts as a corepressor for the thyroid hormone receptor [1].
  • The total hemolytic activity of this C1D could be increased to approximately 75% of that of the original serum by the addition of excess purified C1 [17].
  • Serum depleted of the first component of complement (C1D) was prepared by treating fresh human serum with Sepharose-IgG in the presence of triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexa-acetic acid and di-isopropyl fluorophosphate at acidic pH (5.2) [17].
  • C1 was removed from human serum by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and the supernatant (C1 deficient serum, C1D) was used for assay of C1 hemolytic activity (C1D method) [18].
  • High-mobility group-1 (HMG-1), an abundant, highly conserved cellular protein, is widely known as a nuclear DNA-binding protein that stabilizes nucleosome formation, facilitates gene transcription, and regulates the activity of steroid hormone receptors [19].

Physical interactions of C1D

  • In our previous reports we have described human nuclear DNA-binding protein interacting with AFRs and evidence was presented that the protein recognizes sequence motif 5'-GGAGGC-3' which is conserved in the spacer of RNA polymerase III promoter of AFRs and in the SV40 T-antigen-dependent replication origin of AFRs [20].

Regulatory relationships of C1D

  • These results suggest that one role for C1D may be to regulate TRAX/Translin complex formation [12].

Other interactions of C1D


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C1D


  1. Identification of a novel Rac3-interacting protein C1D. Haataja, L., Groffen, J., Heisterkamp, N. Int. J. Mol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. High mobility group 1 B-box mediates activation of human endothelium. Treutiger, C.J., Mullins, G.E., Johansson, A.S., Rouhiainen, A., Rauvala, H.M., Erlandsson-Harris, H., Andersson, U., Yang, H., Tracey, K.J., Andersson, J., Palmblad, J.E. J. Intern. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. DNA end-independent activation of DNA-PK mediated via association with the DNA-binding protein C1D. Yavuzer, U., Smith, G.C., Bliss, T., Werner, D., Jackson, S.P. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Cell surface expression of the 70-kD component of Ku, a DNA-binding nuclear autoantigen. Prabhakar, B.S., Allaway, G.P., Srinivasappa, J., Notkins, A.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Interaction of PC4 with melted DNA inhibits transcription. Werten, S., Stelzer, G., Goppelt, A., Langen, F.M., Gros, P., Timmers, H.T., Van der Vliet, P.C., Meisterernst, M. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of SAF-A, a novel nuclear DNA binding protein from HeLa cells with high affinity for nuclear matrix/scaffold attachment DNA elements. Romig, H., Fackelmayer, F.O., Renz, A., Ramsperger, U., Richter, A. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Loss of RCC1, a nuclear DNA-binding protein, uncouples the completion of DNA replication from the activation of cdc2 protein kinase and mitosis. Nishitani, H., Ohtsubo, M., Yamashita, K., Iida, H., Pines, J., Yasudo, H., Shibata, Y., Hunter, T., Nishimoto, T. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction of apoptosis by overexpression of the DNA-binding and DNA-PK-activating protein C1D. Rothbarth, K., Spiess, E., Juodka, B., Yavuzer, U., Nehls, P., Stammer, H., Werner, D. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Promoter of the gene encoding the 16 kDa DNA-binding and apoptosis-inducing C1D protein. Rothbarth, K., Hunziker, A., Stammer, H., Werner, D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The polymorphism of transferrin by ultrathin-layer isoelectric focusing. Tf phenotypes and TfC subtypes in the population of Padua. Cortivo, P., Biasiolo, M., Crestani, C., Scorretti, C., Benciolini, P. Forensic Sci. Int. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Hormone-regulatable neoplastic transformation induced by a Jun-estrogen receptor chimera. Kruse, U., Iacovoni, J.S., Goller, M.E., Vogt, P.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. DNA damage-dependent interaction of the nuclear matrix protein C1D with Translin-associated factor X (TRAX). Erdemir, T., Bilican, B., Oncel, D., Goding, C.R., Yavuzer, U. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Plasma concentrations and importance of High Mobility Group Box protein in the prognosis of organ failure in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hatada, T., Wada, H., Nobori, T., Okabayashi, K., Maruyama, K., Abe, Y., Uemoto, S., Yamada, S., Maruyama, I. Thromb. Haemost. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of alpha-enolase as a nuclear DNA-binding protein in the zona fasciculata but not the zona reticularis of the human adrenal cortex. Wang, W., Wang, L., Endoh, A., Hummelke, G., Hawks, C.L., Hornsby, P.J. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Synthesis of a 60 kD nuclear DNA binding protein induced by cytosine arabinoside in the HL 60 leukemic cell line. Ravazzolo, R., Bianchi-Scarră, G., Capra, V., Fiorentini, P., Garrĕ, C. Eur. J. Haematol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. New advances in iron metabolism, iron deficiency, and iron overload. Brittenham, G.M. Curr. Opin. Hematol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. An improved method for preparation of C1-depleted serum and its application to hemolytic assay of C1. Fukumoto, Y., Tsumoto, K., Tashiro, A., Ohtomo, N., Yoshida, T. Complement (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. A simple one-step hemolytic assay of the first component of human complement (C1) with polyethylene glycol treated human serum: details of the assay procedures and its application to the C1 activation study. Nagaki, K., Tsuboi, M., Matsumoto, M., Kitamura, H. Journal of clinical & laboratory immunology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. HMG-1 rediscovered as a cytokine. Yang, H., Wang, H., Tracey, K.J. Shock (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Human nuclear protein interacting with a conservative sequence motif of Alu-family DNA repeats. Tomilin, N.V., Bozhkov, V.M. FEBS Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis as a novel cytokine. Taniguchi, N., Kawahara, K., Yone, K., Hashiguchi, T., Yamakuchi, M., Goto, M., Inoue, K., Yamada, S., Ijiri, K., Matsunaga, S., Nakajima, T., Komiya, S., Maruyama, I. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of KIN (KIN17), a human gene encoding a nuclear DNA-binding protein, as a novel component of the TP53-independent response to ionizing radiation. Masson, C., Menaa, F., Pinon-Lataillade, G., Frobert, Y., Radicella, J.P., Angulo, J.F. Radiat. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. The human CCG1 gene, essential for progression of the G1 phase, encodes a 210-kilodalton nuclear DNA-binding protein. Sekiguchi, T., Nohiro, Y., Nakamura, Y., Hisamoto, N., Nishimoto, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. The DEK Nuclear Autoantigen Is a Secreted Chemotactic Factor. Mor-Vaknin, N., Punturieri, A., Sitwala, K., Faulkner, N., Legendre, M., Khodadoust, M.S., Kappes, F., Ruth, J.H., Koch, A., Glass, D., Petruzzelli, L., Adams, B.S., Markovitz, D.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. GC box binding induces phosphorylation of Sp1 by a DNA-dependent protein kinase. Jackson, S.P., MacDonald, J.J., Lees-Miller, S., Tjian, R. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
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