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Gene Review

TAF1  -  TAF1 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BA2R, CCG1, CCGS, Cell cycle gene 1 protein, DYT3, ...
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Disease relevance of TAF1


High impact information on TAF1

  • Our findings suggest that targeted histone acetylation at specific promoters by TAF(II)250 may be involved in mechanisms by which TFIID gains access to transcriptionally repressed chromatin [6].
  • The TAF(II)250 subunit of TFIID has histone acetyltransferase activity [6].
  • These findings suggest that the targeted phosphorylation of RAP74 by TAFII250 may provide a mechanism for signaling between components within the initiation complex to regulate transcription [7].
  • Here, we report that purified recombinant TAFII250 is a protein serine kinase that selectively phosphotylates RAP74 but not other basal transcription factors or common phosphoacceptor proteins [7].
  • We show here that the N-terminal A/B region of the ER contains an independent constitutive activation function (TAF-1) that exhibits cell type specificity since it activates transcription efficiently in chicken embryo fibroblasts, but only poorly in HeLa cells [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of TAF1


Biological context of TAF1


Anatomical context of TAF1

  • The TAFII250 subunit of the human transcription factor IID (TFIID) rescues the temperature-sensitive hamster cell line ts13 and overcomes a G1 arrest [13].
  • Here we present a novel autosomal human gene, TAF1L, which is homologous to TAF(II)250 and is expressed specifically in the testis, apparently in germ cells [14].
  • Both NFPC and TAF1 function in cell-cell adhesion in the neural ectoderm, and disruptions in either NFPC or TAF1 result in a failure of the neural tube to close [15].
  • Studies of expression in normal tissues demonstrated expression of NSCL-1 and NSCL-2 in the developing central and peripheral nervous system, most likely in developing neurons [16].
  • Labeling with these two antibodies has documented that NUP153 is a constituent of the nuclear basket with at least one of its epitopes residing in its terminal ring, whereas p250 is a constituent of the cytoplasmic filaments [17].

Associations of TAF1 with chemical compounds

  • Substitution of Thr-55 with an alanine residue (T55A) stabilizes p53 and impairs the ability of TAF1 to induce G1 progression [11].
  • The hypoacetylation of H3 at the cyclin D1 promoter was reversed by treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, or by expression of TAF1 proteins that retain HAT activity [12].
  • Estrogen functions as an ER agonist by promoting functional synergism between TAF1 and TAF2 [18].
  • The largest subunit of the human transcription factor TFIID, TAFII250, was previously reported to contain serine/threonine kinase domains that can autophosphorylate and transphosphorylate the large subunit of the basal factor TFIIF [19].
  • In the presence of RU486 TAF-2 was inactive, while TAF-1 within the hPR form B/RU486 complex activated transcription from a reporter gene containing a single palindromic PRE [20].

Physical interactions of TAF1

  • TAF(II)55 binding to TAF(II)250 inhibits its AT activity [21].
  • Moreover, c-Jun blocked the repression of TBP DNA binding caused by the N terminus of TAF(II)250 [22].
  • However, we found no evidence of TAFII250-binding competition between Rb and cyclin D1 in vitro [23].
  • CCG1 contains a sequence similar to the putative DNA-binding domain of HMG1 in addition to the previously detected amino acid sequences common in nuclear proteins, such as a proline cluster and a nuclear translocation signal [24].
  • The factor hCIA interacts with hCCG1 and functions as a histone chaperone in mammalian cells; its homologue in yeast is Asf1p/Cia1p [25].

Enzymatic interactions of TAF1

  • TAF1 interacts with and phosphorylates p53 at Thr-55 in vivo [11].

Regulatory relationships of TAF1

  • Thus, TAF(II)55 is capable of regulating TAF(II)250 function by modulating its AT activity [21].
  • We found that TAF1 induces G1 progression in a p53-dependent manner [11].
  • We further found that the Rb-related protein p107 can inhibit TAFII250 kinase activity, and this inhibition is likewise alleviated by cyclin D1 [23].
  • Expression of wild-type TAF(II)250 in tsBN462 stimulates and prolongs the synthesis of Mdm2 and rescues the temperature-sensitive phenotype [26].

Other interactions of TAF1

  • Comparative far Western blots have shown that hTAF(II)135 interacts strongly with hTAF(II)20, moderately with hTAF(II)150, and weakly with hTAF(II)43 and hTAF(II)250 [27].
  • USF1 augments transcription initiating through the upstream start sites and is dependent on TAF1 (TAF(II)250), a finding consistent with its role in regulating basal class I transcription [28].
  • Transcription of a chimeric promoter containing the Sp1 sites of cyclin D1 and c-fos core remained TAF1 dependent in ts13 cells [12].
  • Temperature-dependent DNA binding activity is also observed for TAF1-TAF2 heterodimers assembled with the ts13 mutant but not the wild-type TAF1 protein [29].
  • Moreover, transcription from the cyclin A and cdc2 promoters becomes impaired when cotransfected with hTAFII250 containing inactive forms of the N-terminal kinase domain [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TAF1


  1. The ts13 mutation in the TAF(II)250 subunit (CCG1) of TFIID directly affects transcription of D-type cyclin genes in cells arrested in G1 at the nonpermissive temperature. Suzuki-Yagawa, Y., Guermah, M., Roeder, R.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Taf(II) 250 phosphorylates human transcription factor IIA on serine residues important for TBP binding and transcription activity. Solow, S., Salunek, M., Ryan, R., Lieberman, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell cycle gene expression and E2F transcription factor complexes in human melanoma cells induced to terminally differentiate. Jiang, H., Lin, J., Young, S.M., Goldstein, N.I., Waxman, S., Davila, V., Chellappan, S.P., Fisher, P.B. Oncogene (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Cell cycle gene regulation in reversibly differentiated new human hepatoma cell lines. Glaise, D., Ilyin, G.P., Loyer, P., Cariou, S., Bilodeau, M., Lucas, J., Puisieux, A., Ozturk, M., Guguen-Guillouzo, C. Cell Growth Differ. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Cell-cycle gene expression in lovastatin-induced medulloblastoma apoptosis. Wang, W., Macaulay, R.J. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The TAF(II)250 subunit of TFIID has histone acetyltransferase activity. Mizzen, C.A., Yang, X.J., Kokubo, T., Brownell, J.E., Bannister, A.J., Owen-Hughes, T., Workman, J., Wang, L., Berger, S.L., Kouzarides, T., Nakatani, Y., Allis, C.D. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. TAFII250 is a bipartite protein kinase that phosphorylates the base transcription factor RAP74. Dikstein, R., Ruppert, S., Tjian, R. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. The human estrogen receptor has two independent nonacidic transcriptional activation functions. Tora, L., White, J., Brou, C., Tasset, D., Webster, N., Scheer, E., Chambon, P. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased lysis of melanoma by in vivo-elicited human lymphokine-activated killer cells after addition of antiganglioside antibodies in vitro. Harel, W., Shau, H., Hadley, C.G., Morgan, A.C., Reisfeld, R.A., Cheresh, D.A., Mitchell, M.S. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Relationship between changes in antigen expression and protein synthesis in human melanoma cells after hyperthermia and photodynamic treatment. Davies, C.L., Ranheim, T., Malik, Z., Rofstad, E.K., Moan, J., Lindmo, T. Br. J. Cancer (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Phosphorylation on Thr-55 by TAF1 mediates degradation of p53: a role for TAF1 in cell G1 progression. Li, H.H., Li, A.G., Sheppard, H.M., Liu, X. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. TAF1 histone acetyltransferase activity in Sp1 activation of the cyclin D1 promoter. Hilton, T.L., Li, Y., Dunphy, E.L., Wang, E.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Promoter-selective transcriptional defect in cell cycle mutant ts13 rescued by hTAFII250. Wang, E.H., Tjian, R. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional substitution for TAF(II)250 by a retroposed homolog that is expressed in human spermatogenesis. Wang, P.J., Page, D.C. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. A requirement for NF-protocadherin and TAF1/Set in cell adhesion and neural tube formation. Rashid, D., Newell, K., Shama, L., Bradley, R. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. A comparative structural characterization of the human NSCL-1 and NSCL-2 genes. Two basic helix-loop-helix genes expressed in the developing nervous system. Lipkowitz, S., Göbel, V., Varterasian, M.L., Nakahara, K., Tchorz, K., Kirsch, I.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Interactions and three-dimensional localization of a group of nuclear pore complex proteins. Panté, N., Bastos, R., McMorrow, I., Burke, B., Aebi, U. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Cellular mechanisms which distinguish between hormone- and antihormone-activated estrogen receptor. McDonnell, D.P., Dana, S.L., Hoener, P.A., Lieberman, B.A., Imhof, M.O., Stein, R.B. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Functional analysis of the human TAFII250 N-terminal kinase domain. O'Brien, T., Tjian, R. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Agonistic and antagonistic activities of RU486 on the functions of the human progesterone receptor. Meyer, M.E., Pornon, A., Ji, J.W., Bocquel, M.T., Chambon, P., Gronemeyer, H. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. TAFII55 binding to TAFII250 inhibits its acetyltransferase activity. Gegonne, A., Weissman, J.D., Singer, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. c-Jun binds the N terminus of human TAF(II)250 to derepress RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro. Lively, T.N., Ferguson, H.A., Galasinski, S.K., Seto, A.G., Goodrich, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Cyclin D1 suppresses retinoblastoma protein-mediated inhibition of TAFII250 kinase activity. Siegert, J.L., Rushton, J.J., Sellers, W.R., Kaelin, W.G., Robbins, P.D. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. The human CCG1 gene, essential for progression of the G1 phase, encodes a 210-kilodalton nuclear DNA-binding protein. Sekiguchi, T., Nohiro, Y., Nakamura, Y., Hisamoto, N., Nishimoto, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Cell death with predominant apoptotic features in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediated by deletion of the histone chaperone ASF1/CIA1. Yamaki, M., Umehara, T., Chimura, T., Horikoshi, M. Genes Cells (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Defect in the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory loop resulting from inactivation of TAF(II)250 in cell cycle mutant tsBN462 cells. Wasylyk, C., Wasylyk, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Positive and negative TAF(II) functions that suggest a dynamic TFIID structure and elicit synergy with traps in activator-induced transcription. Guermah, M., Tao, Y., Roeder, R.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Distinct transcriptional pathways regulate basal and activated major histocompatibility complex class I expression. Howcroft, T.K., Raval, A., Weissman, J.D., Gegonne, A., Singer, D.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Transcription factor IID recruitment and Sp1 activation. Dual function of TAF1 in cyclin D1 transcription. Hilton, T.L., Wang, E.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular cloning of the cDNA of human X chromosomal gene (CCG1) which complements the temperature-sensitive G1 mutants, tsBN462 and ts13, of the BHK cell line. Sekiguchi, T., Miyata, T., Nishimoto, T. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Human transcription factor hTAF(II)150 (CIF150) is involved in transcriptional regulation of cell cycle progression. Martin, J., Halenbeck, R., Kaufmann, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Pain-related somatosensory evoked magnetic fields. Kitamura, Y., Kakigi, R., Hoshiyama, M., Koyama, S., Shimojo, M., Watanabe, S. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1995) [Pubmed]
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