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Gene Review

Cig54  -  cold inducible glycoprotein 54

Mus musculus

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Disease relevance of Cig54

  • A 54-kDa normal cellular protein may be the precursor of the scrapie agent protease-resistant protein [1].
  • Mouse strains whose cells produced a high level of endogenous 54-kDa phosphoprotein on passage did not further increase its expression after simian virus 40 transformation [2].
  • A similar pattern of calmodulin binding proteins was seen in normal and neoplastic large bowel tissue, apart from one of nine adenocarcinomas, where a distinct 54 kDa band was noted in both cytosolic and membrane fractions [3].
  • The Pan 1 protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a novel 54-kDa outer membrane protein expressed only when gonococci are grown in the absence of oxygen [4].
  • A 330-residue carboxy-terminal antigenic fragment of the Toxoplasma gondii 54-kDa rhoptry protein (ROP2) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion polypeptide containing a 48-amino-acid sequence derived from phage lambda protein Cro and E. coli protein LacI followed by six consecutive histidyl residues [5].

High impact information on Cig54


Biological context of Cig54


Anatomical context of Cig54

  • Selective immunoprecipitation revealed a single form of receptor at 54 kDa in mouse fibroblasts (3T6) and pig kidney cells (LLC-PK1) and a 52-kDa species in human breast carcinoma (T47D) [16].
  • Cross-linking studies with T-cell lines and mast cells indicated that the P40-R consists of a 64-kDa glycoprotein, the molecular mass of which is reduced to 54 kDa on treatment with N-glycosidase F [17].
  • Transient expression of the murine cDNA in COS-1 cells yields a protective protein precursor of 54 kDa, a size characteristic of the glycosylated form [18].
  • Most cell lines, including follicular granulosa cells, secrete both prohormone and mature hormone as homodimers (activin) composed of disulfide-linked subunits of 54 kDa (proactivin-A) and 14 kDa (activin-A), respectively, and a small amount of prohormone-mature hormone heterodimers [19].
  • This binding is mediated by a conserved 54-kDa protein found on the plasma membranes of both human and murine cell lines [20].

Associations of Cig54 with chemical compounds

  • The 54-kDa band shares the same NH2-terminal sequence as chick blood vitronectin [21].
  • After agonist elution, the 110-kDa band dissociated into two low molecular mass bands of 66 kDa and 54 kDa when sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis was run under reducing conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[22]
  • Liver microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) catalyze the metabolism of tamoxifen, forming a reactive intermediate that binds irreversibly to microsomal proteins, primarily to a 54 kDa protein (Mani, C. and Kupfer, D., Cancer Res., 51, 6052-6058, 1991) [23].
  • Western immunoblot analysis revealed that 52- and 54-kDa proteins were tyrosine phosphorylated only in infected cells and that phosphorylation of these two proteins was reduced when infected cells were treated with genistein for 6 h [24].
  • Previously, we reported that the epitope of a 54-kDa sperm surface sialoglycoprotein on the flagellum is masked by sialic acid residues [25].

Regulatory relationships of Cig54

  • A 54-kDa protein related to ras-guanine nucleotide release factor expressed in the rat exocrine pancreas [26].

Other interactions of Cig54

  • Western blotting detected a 54-kDa protein in epithelial cell extracts, which also exhibited HDC activity [27].
  • We characterized the transcriptional regulation of the 54 kDa (p54) and 46 kDa (p46) subunits, which form the DNA primase catalytic complex [28].
  • ERalpha (66 kDa) and ERbeta (54 kDa) expression determined by Western blotting was unchanged within 7 h after inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide in the absence of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), showing that both proteins are stable without ligand-binding [29].
  • This increase in plasminogen activator activity was due to urokinase (about 54 kDa) produced by the tumor and not by the mouse host (mouse urine urokinase about 44 kDa) [30].
  • Fractionation of rat liver cytosol, using as an affinity reagent the DNA recognition sequence for the liganded aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor, enriches for proteins that are about 110, 106, 98/96, 57, and 54 kDa in size [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cig54


  1. A 54-kDa normal cellular protein may be the precursor of the scrapie agent protease-resistant protein. Bendheim, P.E., Bolton, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Pre-crisis mouse cells show strain-specific covariation in the amount of 54-kilodalton phosphoprotein and in susceptibility to transformation by simian virus 40. Chen, S., Blanck, G., Pollack, R.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Interspecies comparison of calmodulin binding proteins throughout the gastrointestinal tract: comparison with human colon adenomas and adenocarcinomas. McGarrity, T.J., Peiffer, L.P., Billingsley, M.L. Gut (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Distribution of a protein antigenically related to the major anaerobically induced gonococcal outer membrane protein among other Neisseria species. Hoehn, G.T., Clark, V.L. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis by using a recombinant form of the 54-kilodalton rhoptry antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. van Gelder, P., Bosman, F., de Meuter, F., van Heuverswyn, H., Hérion, P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. SRbeta coordinates signal sequence release from SRP with ribosome binding to the translocon. Fulga, T.A., Sinning, I., Dobberstein, B., Pool, M.R. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The VacA toxin of Helicobacter pylori identifies a new intermediate filament-interacting protein. de Bernard, M., Moschioni, M., Napolitani, G., Rappuoli, R., Montecucco, C. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. In vivo evidence for involvement of a 58 kDa component of nuclear pore-targeting complex in nuclear protein import. Imamoto, N., Shimamoto, T., Takao, T., Tachibana, T., Kose, S., Matsubae, M., Sekimoto, T., Shimonishi, Y., Yoneda, Y. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Distinct signal transduction through the tyrosine-containing domains of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor. Yoshikawa, A., Murakami, H., Nagata, S. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of components of the B-cell antigen receptors following receptor crosslinking. Gold, M.R., Matsuuchi, L., Kelly, R.B., DeFranco, A.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning of the cDNAs for the four subunits of mouse DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex and their gene expression during cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Miyazawa, H., Izumi, M., Tada, S., Takada, R., Masutani, M., Ui, M., Hanaoka, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Cerebellar beta 2-chimaerin, a GTPase-activating protein for p21 ras-related rac is specifically expressed in granule cells and has a unique N-terminal SH2 domain. Leung, T., How, B.E., Manser, E., Lim, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning and characterization of PTP-K1, a novel nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase highly expressed in bone marrow. Huang, K., Sommers, C.L., Grinberg, A., Kozak, C.A., Love, P.E. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of the nuclear localization signal of mouse DNA primase: nuclear transport of p46 subunit is facilitated by interaction with p54 subunit. Mizuno, T., Okamoto, T., Yokoi, M., Izumi, M., Kobayashi, A., Hachiya, T., Tamai, K., Inoue, T., Hanaoka, F. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Possible role of mouse poly(A) polymerase mGLD-2 during oocyte maturation. Nakanishi, T., Kubota, H., Ishibashi, N., Kumagai, S., Watanabe, H., Yamashita, M., Kashiwabara, S., Miyado, K., Baba, T. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Avian and mammalian receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: in vitro translation to characterize size and hormone-dependent regulation. Mangelsdorf, D.J., Pike, J.W., Haussler, M.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional and biochemical characterization of mouse P40/IL-9 receptors. Druez, C., Coulie, P., Uyttenhove, C., Van Snick, J. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Mouse "protective protein". cDNA cloning, sequence comparison, and expression. Galjart, N.J., Gillemans, N., Meijer, D., d'Azzo, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression and processing of the activin-A/erythroid differentiation factor precursor: a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. Huylebroeck, D., Van Nimmen, K., Waheed, A., von Figura, K., Marmenout, A., Fransen, L., De Waele, P., Jaspar, J.M., Franchimont, P., Stunnenberg, H. Mol. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Interaction between a 54-Kilodalton Mammalian Cell Surface Protein and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. Koudelka, K.J., Rae, C.S., Gonzalez, M.J., Manchester, M. J. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Yolk vitronectin. Purification and differences from its blood homologue in molecular size, heparin binding, collagen binding, and bound carbohydrate. Nagano, Y., Hamano, T., Nakashima, N., Ishikawa, M., Miyazaki, K., Hayashi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Affinity purification of angiotensin type 2 receptors from N1E-115 cells: evidence for agonist-induced formation of multimeric complexes. Siemens, I.R., Yee, D.K., Reagan, L.P., Fluharty, S.J. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Involvement of cytochrome P4503A in catalysis of tamoxifen activation and covalent binding to rat and human liver microsomes. Mani, C., Pearce, R., Parkinson, A., Kupfer, D. Carcinogenesis (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for ehrlichial internalization and replication in P388D1 cells. Zhang, Y., Rikihisa, Y. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Masking the cryptodeterminant on the 54-kilodalton mouse sperm surface antigen. Toshimori, K., Araki, S., Tanii, I., Oura, C. Biol. Reprod. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. A 54-kDa protein related to ras-guanine nucleotide release factor expressed in the rat exocrine pancreas. Tung, P.S., Fam, N.P., Chen, L., Moran, M.F. Cell Tissue Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Histidine decarboxylase gene in the mouse uterus is regulated by progesterone and correlates with uterine differentiation for blastocyst implantation. Paria, B.C., Das, N., Das, S.K., Zhao, X., Dileepan, K.N., Dey, S.K. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. E2F regulates growth-dependent transcription of genes encoding both catalytic and regulatory subunits of mouse primase. Nishikawa, N., Izumi, M., Yokoi, M., Miyazawa, H., Hanaoka, F. Genes Cells (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Proteasome-dependent degradation of ERalpha but not ERbeta in cultured mouse aorta smooth muscle cells. Liang, M., Nilsson, B.O. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Human prostate tumor angiogenesis in nude mice: metalloprotease and plasminogen activator activities during tumor growth and neovascularization of subcutaneously injected matrigel impregnated with human prostate tumor cells. Wilson, M.J., Sinha, A.A. Anat. Rec. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Dioxin-dependent, DNA sequence-specific binding of a multiprotein complex containing the Ah receptor. Elferink, C.J., Whitlock, J.P. Receptor (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Nectinepsin: a new extracellular matrix protein of the pexin family. Characterization of a novel cDNA encoding a protein with an RGD cell binding motif. Blancher, C., Omri, B., Bidou, L., Pessac, B., Crisanti, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Neuronal interferon-gamma immunoreactive molecule: bioactivities and purification. Olsson, T., Kelic, S., Edlund, C., Bakhiet, M., Höjeberg, B., van der Meide, P.H., Ljungdahl, A., Kristensson, K. Eur. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Galactosyl receptor, a cell surface C-type lectin of normal and tumoral prostate epithelial cells with binding affinity to endothelial cells. Kierszenbaum, A.L., Rivkin, E., Chang, P.L., Tres, L.L., Olsson, C.A. Prostate (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Purification and properties of L-histidine decarboxylase from mouse stomach. Watabe, A., Fukui, T., Ohmori, E., Ichikawa, A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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