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Gene Review

Il1  -  interleukin 1 complex

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Il-1
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Disease relevance of Il1


High impact information on Il1

  • B2m variants within the H3a-Il1 interval may represent one of these [4].
  • After this time, the response of B cells depends no longer on the presence of Il-1 but on the presence of T cells or TRF [5].
  • The presented data suggest that antigen-primed helper T cells (but not unprimed T cells) induce the release of Il-1 by macrophages, thereby also influencing the early phase of B cell differentiation [5].
  • This is demonstrated in experiments in which Il-1 increases the number of B cells capable of responding to T cell help [5].
  • Previous experiments indicated that repeated intraperitoneal injections of the Il-1 receptor antagonist (Il-1Ra), which inhibits binding of interleukin-1 (Il-1) to the type 1 Il-1 receptor (Il-1Rt1) blocks blastocyst implantation in superovulated mice [6].

Biological context of Il1

  • Finally, the addition of murine Il-1 in vitro to cultures of burn-derived APCs, antigen, and T cell clone restored Th cell proliferation to control levels (from 38.3% to 92.8%) without nonspecifically enhancing similar cultures employing normal APCs [7].
  • Concentrations of zinc which have been shown to restore antibody formation in cells from aged mice and to increase the production of Il-1 and Il-4 inhibited the production of Il-2 [8].
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether interleukin 1 alpha (Il-1), a cytokine known to have a stimulatory effect on collagenase production, also influences the phagocytosis and intracellular digestion of collagen fibrils by fibroblasts [9].
  • When the effect of Il-1 on the major metabolic pathways of the adipocyte was investigated, lipolysis as measured by glycerol release from the cells was markedly enhanced after a 17 h incubation with the hormone, while no effect was observed on de novo fatty acid synthesis [10].

Anatomical context of Il1

  • Blood monocytes produce two well-defined cytokines, tumor necrosis factor/cachectin (TNF) and Il-1, that have multiple immunologic and inflammatory functions [11].
  • The present results suggest that Il-1 does not cause its effect on T lymphocytes via the same mechanism of protein kinase C activation that has been proposed for TPA [12].
  • Il-1 showed only a very marginal growth inhibitory activity and the effects of its combination with DXR were essentially additive in all the cell lines, except in chemosensitive B16, where a slight synergism occurred [13].
  • The results indicated that neither in calvarial nor in long bone periosteum the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen by fibroblasts was influenced by Il-1 [9].
  • Cultures of isolated B lymphocytes produced antibody to sheep red blood cells if the cells were provided with supplemental zinc and Il-1 [8].

Associations of Il1 with chemical compounds

  • Il-1 required the simultaneous presence of ionomycin and TPA to have any demonstrable effect on T lymphocytes from spleen and on thymocytes [12].
  • In addition, Il-1 increased the percentage of thymocytes resistant to hydrocortisone [14].
  • The activity of Il-1 in the supernatant from macrophage cultures, stimulated with carbonyl iron powder, was calculated [14].
  • That this activity is Il-1 was shown by: (i) the time course of thymocyte stimulation; (ii) failure of PHA blast cells to absorb out the activity; (iii) molecular weight of 15,000-20,000 daltons, and (iv) ability to stimulate prostaglandin E2 production from synovial cells [2].
  • Furthermore, addition of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin gave rise to increased Il-1 production, HLA-class II expression, and a stronger antigen-specific T-cell response to PPD [15].

Regulatory relationships of Il1

  • Analysis of collagenase activity in the media demonstrated that under the influence of Il-1 collagenase release increased about 1.5- to 2-fold, most of the enzyme being in a latent form [9].

Other interactions of Il1

  • These results indicate that IL-1 assays using LBRM33 1A5 and D10-G4.1 selectively detect Il-1, and are more specific assays for the detection of IL-1 in samples that may also contain IL-6 [16].
  • The mechanism of inhibition is not due to production of soluble factors, consumption of available interleukin-1 (Il-1) or Il-2, but is dependent on cell-to-cell contact [17].
  • Il-1 in vitro did not improve Th cell function in the absence of antigen [7].
  • The media also proved to contain an inhibitor of collagenase, its production not being affected by Il-1 [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Il1


  1. Tumor-derived products induce Il-1 a, Il-1 b, Tnf a, and Il-6 gene expression in murine macrophages: distinctions between tumor- and bacterial endotoxin-induced gene expression. Evans, R., Kamdar, S.J., Duffy, T.M. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Cytokines and the chronic inflammation of rheumatic disease. I. The presence of interleukin-1 in synovial fluids. Nouri, A.M., Panayi, G.S., Goodman, S.M. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Phenytoin induces interleukin-1 production in vitro. Modéer, T., Karsten, J., Weintraub, A., Gidlund, M., Sundqvist, K.G. Life Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Subcongenic analysis of the Idd13 locus in NOD/Lt mice: evidence for several susceptibility genes including a possible diabetogenic role for beta 2-microglobulin. Serreze, D.V., Bridgett, M., Chapman, H.D., Chen, E., Richard, S.D., Leiter, E.H. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Macrophages and T cells control distinct phases of B cell differentiation in the humoral immune response in vitro. Hoffmann, M.K. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Reproduction in mice lacking a functional type 1 IL-1 receptor. Abbondanzo, S.J., Cullinan, E.B., McIntyre, K., Labow, M.A., Stewart, C.L. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Defective antigen presentation to a cloned T helper cell by macrophages from burned mice can be restored with interleukin-1. Kupper, T.S., Green, D.R., Durum, S.K., Baker, C.C. Surgery (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Supplemental zinc restores antibody formation in cultures of aged spleen cells. III. Impairment of II-2-mediated responses. Winchurch, R.A., Togo, J., Adler, W.H. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Interleukin 1 increases the production of collagenase but does not influence the phagocytosis of collagen fibrils. Everts, V., Wolvius, E., Saklatvala, J., Beertsen, W. Matrix (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of lipoprotein lipase synthesis and 3T3-L1 adipocyte metabolism by recombinant interleukin 1. Price, S.R., Mizel, S.B., Pekala, P.H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Tumor necrosis factor/cachectin and interleukin-1 secretion by cord blood monocytes from premature and term neonates. Weatherstone, K.B., Rich, E.A. Pediatr. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Interleukin 1 and protein kinase C activator are dissimilar in their effects on Il-2 receptor expression and Il-2 secretion by T lymphocytes. Truneh, A., Simon, P., Schmitt-Verhulst, A.M. Cell. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Combined activity of interleukin-1 alpha or TNF-alpha and doxorubicin on multidrug resistant cell lines: evidence that TNF and DXR have synergistic antitumor and differentiation-inducing effects. Borsellino, N., Crescimanno, M., Flandina, C., Flugy, A., D'Alessandro, N. Anticancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Interleukin-1 decreases the level of thymocytes forming rosettes with autologous erythrocytes: a new method of determination of interleukin-1 activity. Zimecki, M., Wieczorek, Z. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Dendritic cells and monocytes as accessory cells in T-cell responses in man. II. Function as antigen-presenting cells. Bjercke, S., Gaudernack, G. Scand. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Biological activity of recombinant murine interleukin-6 in interleukin-1 T cell assays. Suda, T., Hodgkin, P., Lee, F., Zlotnik, A. J. Immunol. Methods (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Murine thymocytes with ability to inhibit Il-2 production: I. Genetic differences between mouse strains and characterization of the model system. Gigliotti, D., Nihlmark, E.L., Wigzell, H., Hansson, M. APMIS (1992) [Pubmed]
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