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Gene Review

CSHL1  -  chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-like 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CS-5, CSHP1, CSL, Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-like 1, Chorionic somatomammotropin-like, ...
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Disease relevance of CSHL1


Psychiatry related information on CSHL1

  • For these studies, a panel of epithelial and mesenchymal cell lines was examined for permissiveness to C. parvum and the ability to bind CSL [6].

High impact information on CSHL1

  • Transcriptional activation requires the displacement of corepressors from CSL by the intracellular portion of the receptor Notch (NotchIC) and the recruitment of the coactivator protein Mastermind to the complex [7].
  • Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 239 patients with various neurological disorders were tested for the presence of autoantibodies to an endogenous mannose-binding protein, the cerebellar soluble lectin CSL, by means of an immunoblotting test with rat CSL as antigen [2].
  • The results of these analyses provide further, tentative, evidence for the presence of a CSL locus on the long arm of chromosome 4 and help to refine the location of this locus in the region of D4S175 and D4S192 [8].
  • In addition, recent evidence of linkage between CL +/- P and two markers (D4S175 and D4S192) in the region 4q25-4q31.3 raised the possibility that a CSL, with a larger effect than either TGFA or RARA, may reside within this region of the human genome [8].
  • In the ninth patient homozygous for a 7.6-kb deletion, the breakpoints are contained within a 29-bp perfect repeat lying 5' to GH1 and the human chorionic somatomammotropin pseudogene (CSHP1) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of CSHL1

  • When N-terminal cysteine derivatives of the CS peptides were conjugated to IgG by covalent cross-linking with N-succinimidyl-3(2-pyridyldithio)propionate, both the CS1 and CS5 conjugates promoted B16-F10 melanoma cell spreading [10].
  • We hypothesized that neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting the apical complex and surface antigens CSL, GP25-200, and P23 could passively immunize against cryptosporidiosis [11].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with ulcerative colitis, intolerant or allergic to 5-ASA, have been treated with a new probiotic preparation (VSL#3, CSL, Milan, Italy) containing 5x10(11) cells/g of 3 strains of bifidobacteria, 4 strains of lactobacilli and 1 strain of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus [12].
  • A mechanism for the loss of contact inhibition is discussed based on the over-expression of CSL ligands in C6 glioblastoma cells relative to normal cells [13].
  • There has been a marked increase in community concerns of the risk of food induced anaphylaxis in children and a consequent increase in the provision of the self or carer injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) (CSL Ltd, Parkville, Victoria, Australia)) [14].

Biological context of CSHL1

  • Complex alternative splicing partially inactivates the human chorionic somatomammotropin-like (hCS-L) gene [15].
  • In contrast, the hCS-L gene has been considered a pseudogene inactivated by loss of the normal intron 2 splice donor site [15].
  • Previously our laboratory has shown that hCS-L transcripts are present in human placenta and that their levels are induced during the second trimester [15].
  • Three of the defined hCS-L mRNAs contain an extended open reading frame similar to that present in the functional GH and CS genes [15].
  • To complete the characterization of the hCS genes, the nucleotide sequence of the hCS-5 gene was determined [16].

Anatomical context of CSHL1

  • To circumvent this problem, we have established stably transfected cell lines selectively expressing the hCS-L gene [15].
  • The level of hCS RNA varied from 22-99% of the total hGH/hCS RNA in the neoplastic trophoblast samples, and variable levels of hGH-V and hCS-L RNA were also observed [1].
  • Also, many term placentas from diabetic pregnancies express lower relative levels of hCS-L mRNA and a much higher hGH-V/CS-L mRNA ratio compared to normal term placenta, resembling more an early placenta pattern of expression [17].
  • CSL was characterized as a soluble glycoprotein exoantigen released by infectious sporozoites [5].
  • These observations indicate that the 85-kDa protein functions as a Caco-2 cell receptor for CSL [6].

Associations of CSHL1 with chemical compounds

  • The minimal active sequence within CS5, the tetrapeptide Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV), is somewhat related to the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) sequence that represents a major active site in the central cell-binding domain (CCBD) of fibronectin [4].
  • Analysis of 14 deletion and alanine substitution mutants revealed a correlation between CBF1 binding, CSL-mediated transactivation, and AP-1 repression [18].
  • A previously proposed universal relation for the perpendicular component of the rotational diffusion tensor, R perpendicular, for CSL in PC/cholesterol mixtures (i.e., R perpendicular = R0 perpendicular exp(-AS2chol/RT)) is confirmed [19].
  • These studies were performed over a range of blends of POPC and POPS and temperatures, utilizing the spin-labeled lipids 16-phosphatidylcholine and 5-phosphatidylcholine as well as cholestane (CSL) [20].
  • However, being more polar, the nitroxide spin probe CSL is preferentially located near the surface of the membrane, while the less polar fluorescent probe DPH reports preferentially near the central hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayers [21].

Other interactions of CSHL1

  • In addition, we have found several placental-specific hypersensitive sites downstream of the hCS-L and hCS-A genes, which might reflect the presence of enhancer elements similar to that located downstream of the hCS-B gene (Walker et al. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12940) [22].
  • The probe did not hybridise to DNA from CS3, CFA/III CS6, CS5 CS6, CS6, CS7, or PCFO159 ETEC [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CSHL1


  1. Detection of placental growth hormone variant and chorionic somatomammotropin ribonucleic acid expression in human trophoblastic neoplasms by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Lytras, A., Bock, M.E., Dodd, J.G., Cattini, P.A. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Antibodies to cerebellar soluble lectin CSL in multiple sclerosis. Zanetta, J.P., Warter, J.M., Kuchler, S., Marschal, P., Rumbach, L., Lehmann, S., Tranchant, C., Reeber, A., Vincendon, G. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of the proteins required for biosynthesis of diphthamide, the target of bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins on translation elongation factor 2. Liu, S., Milne, G.T., Kuremsky, J.G., Fink, G.R., Leppla, S.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The CS5 peptide is a second site in the IIICS region of fibronectin recognized by the integrin alpha 4 beta 1. Inhibition of alpha 4 beta 1 function by RGD peptide homologues. Mould, A.P., Komoriya, A., Yamada, K.M., Humphries, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Protective monoclonal antibody defines a circumsporozoite-like glycoprotein exoantigen of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites and merozoites. Riggs, M.W., Stone, A.L., Yount, P.A., Langer, R.C., Arrowood, M.J., Bentley, D.L. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of an intestinal epithelial cell receptor recognized by the Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite ligand CSL. Langer, R.C., Schaefer, D.A., Riggs, M.W. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Crystal structure of the CSL-Notch-Mastermind ternary complex bound to DNA. Wilson, J.J., Kovall, R.A. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence for an association between nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and a gene located on the long arm of chromosome 4. Mitchell, L.E., Healey, S.C., Chenevix-Trench, G. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular basis of human growth hormone gene deletions. Vnencak-Jones, C.L., Phillips, J.A., Chen, E.Y., Seeburg, P.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of two distinct regions of the type III connecting segment of human plasma fibronectin that promote cell type-specific adhesion. Humphries, M.J., Komoriya, A., Akiyama, S.K., Olden, K., Yamada, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficacy of monoclonal antibodies against defined antigens for passive immunotherapy of chronic gastrointestinal cryptosporidiosis. Riggs, M.W., Schaefer, D.A., Kapil, S.J., Barley-Maloney, L., Perryman, L.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Venturi, A., Gionchetti, P., Rizzello, F., Johansson, R., Zucconi, E., Brigidi, P., Matteuzzi, D., Campieri, M. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of oligomannosidic N-glycans in the proliferation, adhesion and signalling of C6 glioblastoma cells. Schraen-Maschke, S., Zanetta, J.P. Biochimie (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. EpiPen epidemic: suggestions for rational prescribing in childhood food allergy. Kemp, A.S. Journal of paediatrics and child health. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Complex alternative splicing partially inactivates the human chorionic somatomammotropin-like (hCS-L) gene. Misra-Press, A., Cooke, N.E., Liebhaber, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. The human growth hormone gene locus: structure, evolution, and allelic variations. Hirt, H., Kimelman, J., Birnbaum, M.J., Chen, E.Y., Seeburg, P.H., Eberhardt, N.L., Barta, A. DNA (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Detection of placental growth hormone variant and chorionic somatomammotropin-L RNA expression in normal and diabetic pregnancy by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Hu, L., Lytras, A., Bock, M.E., Yuen, C.K., Dodd, J.G., Cattini, P.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Evidence that C promoter-binding factor 1 binding is required for Notch-1-mediated repression of activator protein-1. Chu, J., Bresnick, E.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Thermodynamics and dynamics of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol mixed model membranes in the liquid crystalline state: effects of water. Shin, Y.K., Budil, D.E., Freed, J.H. Biophys. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. An electron spin resonance study of interactions between phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine in oriented membranes. Ge, M., Budil, D.E., Freed, J.H. Biophys. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Structural and dynamic effects of oxidatively modified phospholipids in unsaturated lipid membranes. Wratten, M.L., van Ginkel, G., van't Veld, A.A., Bekker, A., van Faassen, E.E., Sevanian, A. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Multiple changes in chromatin structure precede the transcriptional activation of the human growth hormone locus in placental cells. Jiménez, G., Ford, A.M., Enver, T., Boronat, A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Genotypic detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonisation factors. Grewal, H.M., Sommerfelt, H. APMIS (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Structural requirements for assembly of the CSL.intracellular Notch1.Mastermind-like 1 transcriptional activation complex. Nam, Y., Weng, A.P., Aster, J.C., Blacklow, S.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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