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Gene Review

GH1  -  growth hormone 1

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of GH

  • Growth hormone but not prolactin concentrations in the fluid of bovine ovarian cysts are related to the cystic stage of luteinization [1].
  • In Exp. 2, intracerebroventricular (icv) and intravenous (iv) injections of MEL (100 mug) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH; 0.25 mug/kg body weight), respectively, were performed simultaneously to examine the effect of MEL on GHRH-induced GH release [2].
  • In conclusion, GH overexpression in the CNS results in hyperphagia-induced obesity indicating a dual effect of GH with a central stimulation of appetite and a peripheral lipolytic effect [3].
  • Studies of GH and GH antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes have revealed that GH has a permissive effect for diabetic nephropathy, and that expression of a GHA gene protected mice against diabetic kidney lesions [4].
  • Elevated GH levels are frequently seen in poorly controlled type I diabetics and have been implicated in diabetic complications [4].

Psychiatry related information on GH


High impact information on GH

  • The GH-dependent appearance of IGF II mRNA in the liver and pyloric ceca suggests important roles for this peptide hormone exclusive of IGF I [7].
  • To characterize the effect of GH on the levels of IGF I and IGF II mRNA in a teleost, 10 micrograms of bovine GH (bGH) per g of body weight was administered to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through i.p. injection [7].
  • Immunofluorescent staining indicated that insulin pretreatment facilitated GH-induced cell membrane translocation of MEK1/2 [8].
  • GH also had an acute effect on food intake following intracerebroventricular injection of C57BL/6 mice [3].
  • This study shows that overexpression of GH in the CNS differentiates the effect of GH on body fat mass from that on appetite [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of GH

  • These results suggest that free T(3) and/or IGF-I, affecting dopamine and serotonin systems in the central nervous system, may mediate the enhanced locomotor activity observed in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH [5].
  • The data indicate that IGF-I deficiency is the proximate cause of impaired prostate development and give credence to the idea that, like testosterone, GH and IGF-I may be involved in prostate cancer growth as an extension of a normal process [9].
  • Group DX was injected with dexamethasone (30 micro g/kg body weight per day), group GH was injected with 500 mg slow-release bovine growth hormone at 14-day intervals, group GHDX was injected with dexamethasone and bovine growth hormone, and group CNTRL (serving as control) was injected with saline from day 3 to day 42 of life [10].
  • 11betaHSD1 activity, evaluated by urine cortisol metabolites, is increased in patients with hypopituitarism and decreased by GH replacement [11].
  • Injection of 33 microgram thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)/100 kg body weight increased (P less than .05) GH two- to five-fold above average basal values; however, duration, intensity and wavelength of light did not influence peak GH concentration or area of GH response curves after injection of TRH [12].

Biological context of GH

  • We tested the hypothesis that hypothalamic-pituitary activity, bioassayed by LH pulse frequency, in dairy cattle during early lactation is related to measures of energy status and to circulating profiles of free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), leptin, and growth hormone (GH) [13].
  • Growth hormone suppresses the expression of IGFBP-5, and promotes the IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of Akt in bovine mammary epithelial cells [14].
  • The nucleotide sequence of bGH mRNA is 83.9% homologous with rat GH mRNA and 76.5% homologous with human GH mRNA, while the respective amino acid sequence homologies are 83.5% and 66.8% [15].
  • Tissue-specific regulation of growth hormone (GH) receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression in the pituitary and liver of GH-deficient (lit/lit) mice and transgenic mice that overexpress bovine GH (bGH) or a bGH antagonist [16].
  • Analysis of GH sequences present in total bovine DNA suggests that the bovine genome contains a gene similar to the cloned gene as well as a different, but related, gene [17].

Anatomical context of GH

  • The results of this study suggest that GH plays an important role on mammary gland involution in bovine mammary epithelial cells [14].
  • Skeletal muscle protein degradation, measured by urinary N tau-methylhistidine excretion, and circulating concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), and cortisol (CT) were monitored in steers before and after implantation with estradiol-17 beta (E2; 24 mg) and trenbolone acetate (TBA; 300 mg) [18].
  • These results suggest that MEL stimulates GH secretion possibly through the hypothalamus in cattle [2].
  • The effects of melatonin (MEL) injection into the third ventricle (3V) on growth hormone (GH) secretion were investigated in conscious Holstein steers [2].
  • Adipocytes were incubated with 125I-human GH (125I-hGH) for 2 h at 37 degrees C and washed once to remove unbound hGH [19].

Associations of GH with chemical compounds

  • Concentrations of GH, PRL, estrogens (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)) and testosterone (T) were measured in follicular and cystic fluids [1].
  • Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and glucose were determined [20].
  • A feeding x period interaction (P less than .10) was observed for mean GH concentration, and INS, T4, and T3 concentrations were higher (P less than .05) during the 4-h postfeeding period than during the 4-h prefeeding period [20].
  • We examined the effect of growth hormone (GH) and/or lactogenic hormone complex (DIP; dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin) on leptin mRNA expression in mammary epithelial cells [21].
  • Treatments included: (A) lambs with ad libitum access to a high-energy ration; (G) lambs fed as group A and treated with bovine GH (.08 mg/kg/d); (R) lambs with feed intake restricted to limit ADG to about 120 g; and (S) lambs with ad libitum access to a ration including formaldehyde-protected sunflower seed [22].

Physical interactions of GH

  • Changes of GH binding proteins induce GH resistance and are followed by reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion [23].
  • Prolactin receptors were shown to be abundant in the rabbit mammary glands but no specific binding sites for 125I-labelled GH have been found in membranes isolated from mammary glands of pregnant or lactating rabbits [24].
  • Growth hormone (GH) binding and expression of GH receptor 1A mRNA in hepatic tissue of periparturient dairy cows [25].

Enzymatic interactions of GH

  • We have previously characterized the phosphorylation of bovine PRL and wish to determine whether a similar kinase activity phosphorylates bovine GH [26].

Regulatory relationships of GH

  • Japanese Black cows had one-tenth of the total milk yield of Holstein cows during lactation, and significantly lower GRF-induced GH and higher glucose-induced INS secretions than Holstein cows at all stages [27].
  • Toll-like receptor 2 expression was enhanced with Both compared to either DEX (P < 0.05) or GH (P < 0.05) and tended to be greater than Cnt expression (P = 0.07) [28].
  • Thus, the expression of six LETFs including HNF-3gamma , HNF-3beta, HNF-4alpha, HNF-6, C/EBPalpha, and DBP mRNAs in the bovine liver is regulated by GH, and these six LETFs may play a role in mediating GH regulation of gene expression in the liver [29].
  • 8. Both basal and GHRH-stimulated GH secretion were unaffected by TTX, implying that the Na+ action potential is not critical for such release [30].
  • Both PACAP and PGE2 stimulated GH release at concentrations as low as 10(-9) and 10(-8) M, respectively, (P < 0.01) [31].

Other interactions of GH

  • Locus F(ST) estimates were highest for IGF1 (0.151, sigma = 0.042) and lowest for GH (0.062, sigma = 0.020) [32].
  • We demonstrated that GH reduces mRNA and protein expression of IGFBP-5 in BMECs, but it does not affect the expression of IGFBP-3 [14].
  • Expression of GHR is tissue specific and a requirement for cellular responsiveness to GH [16].
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH), IGF-I, IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), and glucose at wk 2 and 10 postpartum were associated with the ability of postpartum beef cows to resume cycling when maintained on a limited nutrient environment [33].
  • The levels of DBP mRNA were higher (P< 0.05) in the cows 6 h after GH administration but were lower (P< 0.05) in the cows 24 h after GH administration compared with those in the untreated cows [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GH

  • On tissues treated with 250 ng/mL of leptin, GH and PRL mRNA, as well as protein content, were estimated by reverse transcription-PCR and Western immunoblotting, respectively [34].
  • GH and DIP significantly stimulated the secretion of alpha-casein from BMEC on cell culture inserts at 3.5 and 7 days [21].
  • Intravenous injection of GHRH dramatically increased GH release [2].
  • In Exp. 1, three doses of MEL (100, 300 or 600 mug) were injected into the 3V through the cannula and the GH concentration after the injection was determined [2].
  • Both immunoassay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results indicated that metals inhibited both PRL and GH release in a dose-related fashion, and that PRL was more sensitive to all cations tested [35].


  1. Growth hormone but not prolactin concentrations in the fluid of bovine ovarian cysts are related to the cystic stage of luteinization. Borromeo, V., Bramani, S., Berrini, A., Sironi, G., Finazzi, M., Cremonesi, F., Secchi, C. Theriogenology (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of melatonin injected into the third ventricle on growth hormone secretion in holstein steers. Kasuya, E., Kushibik, S., Sutoh, M., Saito, T., Ito, S., Yayou, K., Sakumoto, R., Hodate, K. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Growth hormone overexpression in the central nervous system results in hyperphagia-induced obesity associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Bohlooly-Y, M., Bohlooly, M., Olsson, B., Bruder, C.E., Lindén, D., Sjögren, K., Bjursell, M., Egecioglu, E., Svensson, L., Brodin, P., Waterton, J.C., Isaksson, O.G., Sundler, F., Ahrén, B., Ohlsson, C., Oscarsson, J., Törnell, J. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Liver and kidney growth hormone (GH) receptors are regulated differently in diabetic GH and GH antagonist transgenic mice. Chen, N.Y., Chen, W.Y., Kopchick, J.J. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity in bovine GH transgenic mice involves peripheral mechanisms. Bohlooly-Y, M., Olsson, B., Gritli-Linde, A., Brusehed, O., Isaksson, O.G., Ohlsson, C., Söderpalm, B., Törnell, J., Ola, B. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Growth hormone receptor and regulation of gene expression in fetal lymphoid cells. Chen, H.T., Schuler, L.A., Schultz, R.D. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Appearance of insulin-like growth factor mRNA in the liver and pyloric ceca of a teleost in response to exogenous growth hormone. Shamblott, M.J., Cheng, C.M., Bolt, D., Chen, T.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Insulin enhances growth hormone induction of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Xu, J., Keeton, A.B., Franklin, J.L., Li, X., Venable, D.Y., Frank, S.J., Messina, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Evidence that insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone are required for prostate gland development. Ruan, W., Powell-Braxton, L., Kopchick, J.J., Kleinberg, D.L. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. The response of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor system to growth hormone and dexamethasone in calves. Hammon, H.M., Zbinden, Y., Sauerwein, H., Breier, B.H., Blum, J.W., Donkin, S.S. J. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Lack of contribution of 11betaHSD1 and glucocorticoid action to reduced muscle mass associated with reduced growth hormone action. Itoh, E., Iida, K., Kim, D.S., Del Rincon, J.P., Coschigano, K.T., Kopchick, J.J., Thorner, M.O. Growth Horm. IGF Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Growth hormone, glucocorticoid and thyroxine response to duration, intensity and wavelength of light in prepubertal bulls. Leining, K.B., Tucker, H.A., Kesner, J.S. J. Anim. Sci. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Plasma leptin concentrations correlate with luteinizing hormone secretion in early postpartum Holstein cows. Kadokawa, H., Blache, D., Martin, G.B. J. Dairy Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Growth hormone suppresses the expression of IGFBP-5, and promotes the IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of Akt in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Sakamoto, K., Yano, T., Kobayashi, T., Hagino, A., Aso, H., Obara, Y. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning of DNA complementary to bovine growth hormone mRNA. Miller, W.L., Martial, J.A., Baxter, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Tissue-specific regulation of growth hormone (GH) receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression in the pituitary and liver of GH-deficient (lit/lit) mice and transgenic mice that overexpress bovine GH (bGH) or a bGH antagonist. Iida, K., Del Rincon, J.P., Kim, D.S., Itoh, E., Nass, R., Coschigano, K.T., Kopchick, J.J., Thorner, M.O. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Nucleotide sequence of the bovine growth hormone chromosomal gene. Gordon, D.F., Quick, D.P., Erwin, C.R., Donelson, J.E., Maurer, R.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Skeletal muscle protein metabolism and serum growth hormone, insulin, and cortisol concentrations in growing steers implanted with estradiol-17 beta, trenbolone acetate, or estradiol-17 beta plus trenbolone acetate. Hayden, J.M., Bergen, W.G., Merkel, R.A. J. Anim. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of a high affinity growth hormone receptor in rat adipocyte membranes. Carter-Su, C., Schwartz, J., Kikuchi, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Influence of zeranol and breed on growth, composition of gain, and plasma hormone concentrations. Williams, J.E., Ireland, S.J., Mollett, T.A., Hancock, D.L., Beaver, E.E., Hannah, S. J. Anim. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Growth hormone and lactogenic hormones can reduce the leptin mRNA expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Yonekura, S., Sakamoto, K., Komatsu, T., Hagino, A., Katoh, K., Obara, Y. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of plane of nutrition, growth hormone and unsaturated fat on growth hormone, insulin and prolactin receptors in prepubertal lambs. McFadden, T.B., Daniel, T.E., Akers, R.M. J. Anim. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Mechanisms of reduced and compensatory growth. Hornick, J.L., Van Eenaeme, C., Gérard, O., Dufrasne, I., Istasse, L. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. In vivo effect of growth hormone on DNA synthesis and expression of milk protein genes in the rabbit mammary gland. Zebrowska, T., Siadkowska, E., Zwierzchowski, L., Gajewska, A., Kochman, K. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Growth hormone (GH) binding and expression of GH receptor 1A mRNA in hepatic tissue of periparturient dairy cows. Radcliff, R.P., McCormack, B.L., Crooker, B.A., Lucy, M.C. J. Dairy Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. GH kinase activity in bovine anterior pituitary subcellular fractions. Wicks, J.R., Brooks, C.L. Endocrine (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Breed differences in growth hormone and insulin secretion between lactating Japanese Black cows (beef type) and Holstein cows (dairy type). Shingu, H., Hodate, K., Kushibiki, S., Ueda, Y., Watanabe, A., Shinoda, M., Matsumoto, M. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and acute phase cytokine gene expression in dexamethasone and growth hormone treated dairy calves. Eicher, S.D., McMunn, K.A., Hammon, H.M., Donkin, S.S. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Growth hormone regulates the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 gamma and other liver-enriched transcription factors in the bovine liver. Eleswarapu, S., Jiang, H. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Whole-cell recordings of ionic currents in bovine somatotrophs and their involvement in growth hormone secretion. Mason, W.T., Rawlings, S.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) on the release of growth hormone from cultured bovine anterior pituitary cells in vitro. Hashizume, T., Soliman, E.B., Kanematsu, S. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Analysis of population differentiation in North Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) using single nucleotide polymorphisms in three genes associated with production traits. Li, M.H., Adamowicz, T., Switonski, M., Ammosov, I., Ivanova, Z., Kiselyova, T., Popov, R., Kantanen, J. Anim. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Circulating insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, growth hormone, and resumption of estrus in postpartum cows subjected to dietary energy restriction. Roberts, A.J., Nugent, R.A., Klindt, J., Jenkins, T.G. J. Anim. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Role of leptin on growth hormone and prolactin secretion by bovine pituitary explants. Accorsi, P.A., Munno, A., Gamberoni, M., Viggiani, R., De Ambrogi, M., Tamanini, C., Seren, E. J. Dairy Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  35. Divalent cation inhibition of hormone release from isolated adenohypophysial secretory granules. Lorenson, M.Y., Robson, D.L., Jacobs, L.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
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