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Gene Review

Gh  -  growth hormone

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Gh1, Growth hormone, Somatotropin
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Disease relevance of Gh


High impact information on Gh

  • Growth hormone (GH) expression in pituitary-derived cells has been attributed to the presence of a positive trans-activator, GHF-1, which binds to two sites on the GH promoter [6].
  • Growth hormone: species-specific stimulation of erythropoiesis in vitro [7].
  • Growth hormone signaling mediated by the Stat5 transcription factors is impaired [8].
  • Growth hormone-induced Jak2 phosphorylation was enhanced by siRNA-specific knockdown of PLCgamma1 [9].
  • Growth hormone binds to its membrane receptor (GHR), whereby it regulates many cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and chemotaxis [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gh


Biological context of Gh


Anatomical context of Gh


Associations of Gh with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Gh


Other interactions of Gh


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gh


  1. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I measurements in high growth (hg) mice. Medrano, J.F., Pomp, D., Sharrow, L., Bradford, G.E., Downs, T.R., Frohman, L.A. Genet. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Growth hormone overexpression in the central nervous system results in hyperphagia-induced obesity associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Bohlooly-Y, M., Bohlooly, M., Olsson, B., Bruder, C.E., Lindén, D., Sjögren, K., Bjursell, M., Egecioglu, E., Svensson, L., Brodin, P., Waterton, J.C., Isaksson, O.G., Sundler, F., Ahrén, B., Ohlsson, C., Oscarsson, J., Törnell, J. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I: effects on the growth of glioma cell lines. Friend, K.E., Khandwala, H.M., Flyvbjerg, A., Hill, H., Li, J., McCutcheon, I.E. Growth Horm. IGF Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. High, persistent hepatocellular proliferation and apoptosis precede hepatocarcinogenesis in growth hormone transgenic mice. Snibson, K.J., Bhathal, P.S., Hardy, C.L., Brandon, M.R., Adams, T.E. Liver (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Enhanced survival and mucosal repair after dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in transgenic mice that overexpress growth hormone. Williams, K.L., Fuller, C.R., Dieleman, L.A., DaCosta, C.M., Haldeman, K.M., Sartor, R.B., Lund, P.K. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Extinction of growth hormone expression in somatic cell hybrids involves repression of the specific trans-activator GHF-1. McCormick, A., Wu, D., Castrillo, J.L., Dana, S., Strobl, J., Thompson, E.B., Karin, M. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Growth hormone: species-specific stimulation of erythropoiesis in vitro. Golde, D.W., Bersch, N., Li, C.H. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Glucocorticoid receptor function in hepatocytes is essential to promote postnatal body growth. Tronche, F., Opherk, C., Moriggl, R., Kellendonk, C., Reimann, A., Schwake, L., Reichardt, H.M., Stangl, K., Gau, D., Hoeflich, A., Beug, H., Schmid, W., Schütz, G. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Phospholipase Cgamma1 negatively regulates growth hormone signalling by forming a ternary complex with Jak2 and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B. Choi, J.H., Kim, H.S., Kim, S.H., Yang, Y.R., Bae, Y.S., Chang, J.S., Moo Kwon, H., Ryu, S.H., Suh, P.G. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Action and interaction of growth hormone and the beta-agonist, clenbuterol, on growth, body composition and protein turnover in dwarf mice. Bates, P.C., Pell, J.M. Br. J. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Growth hormone modulates IL-alpha and IFN-gamma release by murine splenocytes activated by LPS or porins of Salmonella typhimurium. Sommese, L., Donnarumma, G., de l'Ero, C., Marcatili, A., Vitiello, M., Galdiero, M. J. Med. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Growth hormone promotes skeletal muscle cell fusion independent of insulin-like growth factor 1 up-regulation. Sotiropoulos, A., Ohanna, M., Kedzia, C., Menon, R.K., Kopchick, J.J., Kelly, P.A., Pende, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Growth hormone-induced alteration in ErbB-2 phosphorylation status in 3T3-F442A fibroblasts. Kim, S.O., Houtman, J.C., Jiang, J., Ruppert, J.M., Bertics, P.J., Frank, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Growth hormone transgenes regulate the expression of sex-specific isoforms of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-->4-isomerase in mouse liver and gonads. Keeney, D.S., Murry, B.A., Bartke, A., Wagner, T.E., Mason, J.I. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Growth hormone receptor gene deficiency causes delayed insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscles without affecting compensatory islet cell overgrowth in obese mice. Robertson, K., Kopchick, J.J., Liu, J.L. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Growth hormone (GH) and estradiol regulation of membrane-associated GH binding protein and GH receptors in GH releasing hormone transgenic mice. González, L., Sotelo, A.I., Bartke, A., Turyn, D. Growth Horm. IGF Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Growth hormone and epidermal growth factor in salivary glands of giant and dwarf transgenic mice. Young, W.G., Ramirez-Yañez, G.O., Daley, T.J., Smid, J.R., Coshigano, K.T., Kopchick, J.J., Waters, M.J. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Growth hormone and prolactin receptors in adipogenesis: STAT-5 activation, suppressors of cytokine signaling, and regulation of insulin-like growth factor I. Fleenor, D., Arumugam, R., Freemark, M. Horm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of GH and IGF-I on the in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes. Kiapekou, E., Loutradis, D., Drakakis, P., Zapanti, E., Mastorakos, G., Antsaklis, A. Hormones (Athens, Greece) (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Growth hormone expression in murine bone marrow cells is independent of the pituitary transcription factor Pit-1. Kooijman, R., Malur, A., Van Buul-Offers, S.C., Hooghe-Peters, E.L. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I treatment increase testicular luteinizing hormone receptors and steroidogenic responsiveness of growth hormone deficient dwarf mice. Chatelain, P.G., Sanchez, P., Saez, J.M. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I enhance beta-glucuronidase gene activation by androgen in mouse kidney. Niermann, G.L., Watson, G.L. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Growth hormone alters methionine and glutathione metabolism in Ames dwarf mice. Brown-Borg, H.M., Rakoczy, S.G., Uthus, E.O. Mech. Ageing Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors I and II produce distinct alterations in glucose metabolism in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Schwartz, J., Foster, C.M., Satin, M.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Growth hormone promotes the differentiation of myoblasts and preadipocytes generated by azacytidine treatment of 10T1/2 cells. Nixon, B.T., Green, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Growth hormone synergizes with serum growth factors in inducing c-fos transcription in 3T3-F442A cells. Ashcom, G., Gurland, G., Schwartz, J. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Growth hormone enhances hepatic epidermal growth factor receptor concentration in mice. Jansson, J.O., Ekberg, S., Hoath, S.B., Beamer, W.G., Frohman, L.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Specificity of transcription enhancement via the STAT responsive element in the serine protease inhibitor 2.1 promoter. Wood, T.J., Sliva, D., Lobie, P.E., Goullieux, F., Mui, A.L., Groner, B., Norstedt, G., Haldosén, L.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Growth hormone upregulates gastrin and peptide YY gene expression. Gomez, G., Udupi, V., Qi, X., Lluis, F., Rajaraman, S., Thompson, J.C., Greeley, G.H. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Growth hormone-induced nuclear translocation of Stat-3 decreases with age: modulation by caloric restriction. Xu, X., Sonntag, W.E. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of growth hormone, prolactin and insulin on the release of IL-1 alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-4 by staphylococcal enterotoxin A-stimulated splenocytes. Galdiero, M., Donnarumma, G., Cipollaro de l'Ero, G., Marcatili, A., Scarfogliero, P., Sommese, L. Eur. Cytokine Netw. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Growth hormone is a positive regulator of adiponectin receptor 2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Fasshauer, M., Klein, J., Kralisch, S., Klier, M., Lössner, U., Blüher, M., Paschke, R. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Growth hormone and SOCS2 regulation of neuronal differentiation: possible role in mental function. Turnley, A.M. Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Growth hormone and Pit-1 mRNA detection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in adult and developing Ames dwarf mice. Hurley, D.L., Wojtkiewicz, P.W., Phelps, C.J. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Growth hormone (GH) and 17beta-estradiol regulation of the expression of mouse GH receptor and GH-binding protein in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Contreras, B., Talamantes, F. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Compensatory renal growth in uninephrectomized adult mice is growth hormone dependent. Flyvbjerg, A., Bennett, W.F., Rasch, R., van Neck, J.W., Groffen, C.A., Kopchick, J.J., Scarlett, J.A. Kidney Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Growth hormone resistance: clinical states and animal models. Hull, K.L., Harvey, S. J. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 on mouse osteoclast formation and osteoclastic bone-resorbing activity. Kanatani, M., Sugimoto, T., Nishiyama, K., Chihara, K. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. Growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor I enhance host defense in a murine sepsis model. Inoue, T., Saito, H., Fukushima, R., Inaba, T., Lin, M.T., Fukatsu, K., Muto, T. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Diet effects on female reproduction in high growth (hg/hg) mice that are deficient in the Socs-2 gene. Corva, P.M., Muccia, N.C., Evans, K., Medrano, J.F. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
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