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Gene Review

Limk1  -  LIM-domain containing, protein kinase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: KIZ-1, LIM domain kinase 1, LIMK-1, Limk
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Disease relevance of Limk1

  • In addition, abnormal expression of LIMK-1 is associated with Williams syndrome, a mental disorder with profound deficits in visuospatial cognition [1].
  • LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) controls important cellular functions such as morphogenesis, cell motility, tumor cell metastasis, development of neuronal projections, and growth cone actin dynamics [2].
  • We found that the level and activity of endogenous LIMK1 is increased in invasive breast and prostate cancer cell lines in comparison with less invasive cells [3].
  • Overexpression of LIMK1 in MCF-7 and in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines increased their motility, whereas the specific ROCK and Rho inhibitors Y-27632 and C3, respectively, attenuated this effect [3].

High impact information on Limk1


Biological context of Limk1


Anatomical context of Limk1


Associations of Limk1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Limk1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Limk1

  • Assignment of the human and mouse LIM-kinase genes (LIMK1; Limk1) to chromosome bands 7q11.23 and 5G1, respectively, by in situ hybridization [15].
  • Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated LIMK1 subcellular localization at focal adhesions in fibroblasts as revealed by co-staining with actin, paxillin and vinculin in addition to perinuclear (Golgi) and occasional nuclear localization [16].
  • Immunoblotting analysis revealed widespread expression of LIMK1 existing as a 70-kDa protein in tissues and in cell lines, with a higher mass form (approximately 75 kDa) present in some tissues and cell lines [16].
  • Furthermore, an association between LIMK1 and paxillin but not vinculin was identified by co-immunoprecipitation analysis [16].
  • In addition, inhibition of LIMK1 activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells by expression of dominant-negative LIMK1 resulted in decreased motility and formation of osteolytic bone lesions in an animal model of tumor invasion [3].


  1. Abnormal spine morphology and enhanced LTP in LIMK-1 knockout mice. Meng, Y., Zhang, Y., Tregoubov, V., Janus, C., Cruz, L., Jackson, M., Lu, W.Y., MacDonald, J.F., Wang, J.Y., Falls, D.L., Jia, Z. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. The ubiquitin ligase Rnf6 regulates local LIM kinase 1 levels in axonal growth cones. Tursun, B., Schlüter, A., Peters, M.A., Viehweger, B., Ostendorff, H.P., Soosairajah, J., Drung, A., Bossenz, M., Johnsen, S.A., Schweizer, M., Bernard, O., Bach, I. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. A role for LIM kinase in cancer invasion. Yoshioka, K., Foletta, V., Bernard, O., Itoh, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities of the hippocampal formation in Williams syndrome. Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Mervis, C.B., Sarpal, D., Koch, P., Steele, S., Kohn, P., Marenco, S., Morris, C.A., Das, S., Kippenhan, S., Mattay, V.S., Weinberger, D.R., Berman, K.F. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Head, neck, and spines: a role for LIMK-1 in the hippocampus. Sarmiere, P.D., Bamburg, J.R. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Mouse LIM-kinase 2 gene: cDNA cloning, genomic organization, and tissue-specific expression of two alternatively initiated transcripts. Ikebe, C., Ohashi, K., Fujimori, T., Bernard, O., Noda, T., Robertson, E.J., Mizuno, K. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of ADF/cofilin phosphorylation and synaptic function by LIM-kinase. Meng, Y., Takahashi, H., Meng, J., Zhang, Y., Lu, G., Asrar, S., Nakamura, T., Jia, Z. Neuropharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Limk1 is predominantly expressed in neural tissues and phosphorylates serine, threonine and tyrosine residues in vitro. Pröschel, C., Blouin, M.J., Gutowski, N.J., Ludwig, R., Noble, M. Oncogene (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure and chromosomal localization of the genomic locus encoding the Kiz1 LIM-kinase gene. Bernard, O., Burkitt, V., Webb, G.C., Bottema, C.D., Nicholl, J., Sutherland, G.R., Matthew, P. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. LIM-kinase as a regulator of actin dynamics in spermatogenesis. Takahashi, H., Funakoshi, H., Nakamura, T. Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The murine LIM-kinase gene (limk) encodes a novel serine threonine kinase expressed predominantly in trophoblast giant cells and the developing nervous system. Cheng, A.K., Robertson, E.J. Mech. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Suppression of fibroblast cell growth by overexpression of LIM-kinase 1. Higuchi, O., Baeg, G.H., Akiyama, T., Mizuno, K. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Targeting Rac1 by the Yersinia effector protein YopE inhibits caspase-1-mediated maturation and release of interleukin-1beta. Schotte, P., Denecker, G., Van Den Broeke, A., Vandenabeele, P., Cornelis, G.R., Beyaert, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. LIMK1 and CLIP-115: linking cytoskeletal defects to Williams syndrome. Hoogenraad, C.C., Akhmanova, A., Galjart, N., De Zeeuw, C.I. Bioessays (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Assignment of the human and mouse LIM-kinase genes (LIMK1; Limk1) to chromosome bands 7q11.23 and 5G1, respectively, by in situ hybridization. Mao, X., Jones, T.A., Williamson, J., Gutowski, N.J., Pröschel, C., Noble, M., Sheer, D. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. LIM kinase 1, a key regulator of actin dynamics, is widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues. Foletta, V.C., Moussi, N., Sarmiere, P.D., Bamburg, J.R., Bernard, O. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
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