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Gene Review

FIGF  -  c-fos induced growth factor (vascular...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: VEGF-D, VEGFD, Vascular endothelial growth factor D, c-Fos-induced growth factor
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Disease relevance of FIGF

  • VEGF-D mRNA was significantly more abundant in normal tissues than in adenomas (p = 0.0001) and carcinomas (p < 0.0001) [1].
  • RESULTS: We observed that expression patterns of VEGF isotypes corresponded to the prostate cancer stage: high expression of angiogenic growth factor VEGF-A was observed in early-stage prostate specimens, whereas high expression of lymphangiogenic growth factor VEGF-D was associated with advanced-stage metastatic disease [2].
  • VEGF-D expression was detected only in an inflammatory breast cancer and a tumor which developed an inflammatory skin metastasis [3].
  • VEGFD, implicated in angiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, is a pharmacogenomics target in the field of oncology [4].
  • However, VEGF-D levels were decreased in patients with cervical nodal metastasis as compared to patients with negative lymph node status [5].

Psychiatry related information on FIGF


High impact information on FIGF


Chemical compound and disease context of FIGF


Biological context of FIGF


Anatomical context of FIGF


Associations of FIGF with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of FIGF


Other interactions of FIGF


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FIGF


  1. The angiogenic switch for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence during colorectal cancer progression. Hanrahan, V., Currie, M.J., Gunningham, S.P., Morrin, H.R., Scott, P.A., Robinson, B.A., Fox, S.B. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Stage-specific characterization of the vascular endothelial growth factor axis in prostate cancer: expression of lymphangiogenic markers is associated with advanced-stage disease. Kaushal, V., Mukunyadzi, P., Dennis, R.A., Siegel, E.R., Johnson, D.E., Kohli, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members in breast cancer. Kurebayashi, J., Otsuki, T., Kunisue, H., Mikami, Y., Tanaka, K., Yamamoto, S., Sonoo, H. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparative integromics on VEGF family members. Katoh, Y., Katoh, M. Int. J. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Dual role of VEGF family members in the pathogenesis of head and neck cancer (HNSCC): possible link between angiogenesis and immune tolerance. Strauss, L., Volland, D., Kunkel, M., Reichert, T.E. Med. Sci. Monit. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor D in breast carcinoma with long-term follow-up. Nakamura, Y., Yasuoka, H., Tsujimoto, M., Yang, Q., Imabun, S., Nakahara, M., Nakao, K., Nakamura, M., Mori, I., Kakudo, K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Vascular growth factors and lymphangiogenesis. Jussila, L., Alitalo, K. Physiol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus-induced cellular reprogramming contributes to the lymphatic endothelial gene expression in Kaposi sarcoma. Wang, H.W., Trotter, M.W., Lagos, D., Bourboulia, D., Henderson, S., Mäkinen, T., Elliman, S., Flanagan, A.M., Alitalo, K., Boshoff, C. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Plasmin activates the lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D. McColl, B.K., Baldwin, M.E., Roufail, S., Freeman, C., Moritz, R.L., Simpson, R.J., Alitalo, K., Stacker, S.A., Achen, M.G. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) is a ligand for the tyrosine kinases VEGF receptor 2 (Flk1) and VEGF receptor 3 (Flt4). Achen, M.G., Jeltsch, M., Kukk, E., Mäkinen, T., Vitali, A., Wilks, A.F., Alitalo, K., Stacker, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D is a survival factor for human breast carcinoma cells. Akahane, M., Akahane, T., Matheny, S.L., Shah, A., Okajima, E., Thorgeirsson, U.P. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor D is associated with hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1alpha) and the HIF-1alpha target gene DEC1, but not lymph node metastasis in primary human breast carcinomas. Currie, M.J., Hanrahan, V., Gunningham, S.P., Morrin, H.R., Frampton, C., Han, C., Robinson, B.A., Fox, S.B. J. Clin. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Human FIGF: cloning, gene structure, and mapping to chromosome Xp22.1 between the PIGA and the GRPR genes. Rocchigiani, M., Lestingi, M., Luddi, A., Orlandini, M., Franco, B., Rossi, E., Ballabio, A., Zuffardi, O., Oliviero, S. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Apoptosis of human macrophages by Flt-4 signaling: implications for atherosclerotic plaque pathology. Schmeisser, A., Christoph, M., Augstein, A., Marquetant, R., Kasper, M., Braun-Dullaeus, R.C., Strasser, R.H. Cardiovasc. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Signaling pathways induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (review). Larrivée, B., Karsan, A. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Lymphangiogenesis and its regulation in human neuroblastoma. Lagodny, J., J??ttner, E., Kayser, G., Niemeyer, C.M., R??ssler, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Tumor-associated macrophages express lymphatic endothelial growth factors and are related to peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. Schoppmann, S.F., Birner, P., Stöckl, J., Kalt, R., Ullrich, R., Caucig, C., Kriehuber, E., Nagy, K., Alitalo, K., Kerjaschki, D. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Nitric oxide in papillary thyroid carcinoma: induction of vascular endothelial growth factor D and correlation with lymph node metastasis. Nakamura, Y., Yasuoka, H., Zuo, H., Takamura, Y., Miyauchi, A., Nakamura, M., Kakudo, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. A paracrine loop in the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway triggers tumor angiogenesis and growth in multiple myeloma. Vacca, A., Ria, R., Ribatti, D., Semeraro, F., Djonov, V., Di Raimondo, F., Dammacco, F. Haematologica (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. The expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor C and D in human esophageal normal mucosa, dysplasia and neoplasia. Ishikawa, M., Kitayama, J., Kazama, S., Nagawa, H. Hepatogastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Gene transfer for therapeutic vascular growth in myocardial and peripheral ischemia. Rissanen, T.T., Rutanen, J., Ylä-Herttuala, S. Adv. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Vascular endothelial growth factors C and D and their VEGFR-2 and 3 receptors in blood and lymphatic vessels in healthy and arthritic synovium. Paavonen, K., Mandelin, J., Partanen, T., Jussila, L., Li, T.F., Ristimaki, A., Alitalo, K., Konttinen, Y.T. J. Rheumatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D is an independent prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Yokoyama, Y., Charnock-Jones, D.S., Licence, D., Yanaihara, A., Hastings, J.M., Holland, C.M., Emoto, M., Umemoto, M., Sakamoto, T., Sato, S., Mizunuma, H., Smith, S.K. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of lymphangiogenic factors and evidence of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis in pancreatic endocrine tumors. Sipos, B., Klapper, W., Kruse, M.L., Kalthoff, H., Kerjaschki, D., Klöppel, G. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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