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Gene Review

Hprt1  -  hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: HGPRT, HGPRTase, Hgprtase, Hprt, Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
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Disease relevance of Hprt


High impact information on Hprt


Chemical compound and disease context of Hprt


Biological context of Hprt


Anatomical context of Hprt


Associations of Hprt with chemical compounds

  • In order to determine the sensitivity of mutant induction in the Hprt lymphocyte assay for detecting tumorigenic doses of thiotepa, Fischer 344 rats were treated for 4 weeks with thiotepa using a procedure adapted from a carcinogenesis protocol [16].
  • The mutational signature of alpha-hydroxytamoxifen at Hprt locus in Chinese hamster cells [23].
  • Hprt mutation frequency was increased in alveolar type II cells from rats exposed to 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz, 100 mg/kg carbon black and 100 mg/kg titanium dioxide [24].
  • The majority of thiotepa-induced base pair substitutions in the Hprt gene occurred with the mutated purine on the non-transcribed DNA strand, while no strand-related bias was found for mutations in the lacI gene [18].
  • Sequence specificity of Hprt lymphocyte mutation in rats fed the hepatocarcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene [25].

Other interactions of Hprt


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hprt

  • The gene encoding hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase as target for mutational analysis: PCR cloning and sequencing of the cDNA from the rat [15].
  • Mutant clones collected from control and BD-exposed mice were propagated and analyzed by RT-PCR to produce Hprt cDNA for sequencing [30].
  • Sequence analysis of lacI mutant DNA and Hprt mutant cDNA produced similar overall mutation patterns: G:C-->T:A transversion was the most common base pair substitution (32% of independent mutations in the lacI gene and 28% of Hprt mutations), and deletions and insertions accounted for 34% of mutations in the lacI gene and 28% in the Hprt gene [18].
  • A high performance liquid chromatography study of the intracellular nucleotide pools labeled with [3H]hypoxanthine was carried out in host cells lacking hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, and the depletion of guanine nucleotides demonstrated that the intracellular parasite enzyme was being inhibited by the drug [31].
  • Thus, it is likely that hypoxanthine is salvaged when present alone and is oxidized generating the reperfusion injury when the salvage is prevented by guanine that competes with hypoxanthine from the same site of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase [32].


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  9. Rat and hamster hepatocyte-mediated induction of SCEs and mutation in V79 cells and mutation of salmonella by aminofluorene and dimethylnitrosamine. Langenbach, R., Leavitt, S., Hix, C., Sharief, Y., Allen, J.W. Mutat. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Lack of activity of the bacterial mutagen emodin in HGPRT and SCE assay with V79 Chinese hamster cells. Bruggeman, I.M., van der Hoeven, J.C. Mutat. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutagenic studies on the hair dye 2-(2',4'-diaminophenoxy)ethanol with different genetic systems. Loprieno, N., Barale, R., Mariani, L., Zaccaro, L. Mutat. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Single nucleotide instability: a wide involvement in human and rat mammary carcinogenesis? Okochi, E., Watanabe, N., Sugimura, T., Ushijima, T. Mutat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  14. DNA sequence flanking the protein coding regions of the rat Hprt gene. Chen, T., Mittelstaedt, R.A., Heflich, R.H. Mutat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. The gene encoding hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase as target for mutational analysis: PCR cloning and sequencing of the cDNA from the rat. Jansen, J.G., Vrieling, H., van Zeeland, A.A., Mohn, G.R. Mutat. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Hprt mutant frequency and molecular analysis of Hprt mutations in Fischer 344 rats treated with thiotepa. Chen, T., Aidoo, A., Mittelstaedt, R.A., Casciano, D.A., Heflich, R.H. Carcinogenesis (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of in vivo mutagenesis in the endogenous Hprt gene and the lacI transgene of Big Blue(R) rats treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Manjanatha, M.G., Shelton, S.D., Aidoo, A., Lyn-Cook, L.E., Casciano, D.A. Mutat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparison of mutant frequencies and types of mutations induced by thiotepa in the endogenous Hprt gene and transgenic lacI gene of Big Blue rats. Chen, T., Aidoo, A., Manjanatha, M.G., Mittelstaedt, R.A., Shelton, S.D., Lyn-Cook, L.E., Casciano, D.A., Heflich, R.H. Mutat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Analysis of mutations and bone marrow micronuclei in Big Blue rats fed leucomalachite green. Manjanatha, M.G., Shelton, S.D., Bishop, M., Shaddock, J.G., Dobrovolsky, V.N., Heflich, R.H., Webb, P.J., Blankenship, L.R., Beland, F.A., Greenlees, K.J., Culp, S.J. Mutat. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Analysis of in vivo mutation in exon 8 of the rat hprt gene. Mittelstaedt, R.A., Heflich, R.H. Mutat. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. DNA adduct formation and mutant induction in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with tamoxifen and its derivatives. da Costa, G.G., McDaniel-Hamilton, L.P., Heflich, R.H., Marques, M.M., Beland, F.A. Carcinogenesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparison of the mutagenic potency of 1,3-butadiene at the hprt locus of T-lymphocytes following inhalation exposure of female B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. Meng, Q., Recio, L., Reilly, A.A., Wong, B.A., Bauer, M., Walker, V.E. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. The mutational signature of alpha-hydroxytamoxifen at Hprt locus in Chinese hamster cells. Yadollahi-Farsani, M., Davies, D.S., Boobis, A.R. Carcinogenesis (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of particle exposure and particle-elicited inflammatory cells on mutation in rat alveolar epithelial cells. Driscoll, K.E., Deyo, L.C., Carter, J.M., Howard, B.W., Hassenbein, D.G., Bertram, T.A. Carcinogenesis (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Sequence specificity of Hprt lymphocyte mutation in rats fed the hepatocarcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene. Mittelstaedt, R.A., Smith, B.A., Chen, T., Beland, F.A., Heflich, R.H. Mutat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Prostaglandin A2 specifically represses insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Bui, T., Kuo, C., Rotwein, P., Straus, D.S. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Guanosine metabolism in adult rat cardiac myocytes: inhibition by acyclovir and analysis of a metabolic pathway. Geisbuhler, T.P., Schwager, T.L., Rovetto, M.J. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of undernutrition on some enzymes involved in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotides in different regions of developing rat brain. Vanella, A., Barcellona, M.L., Serra, I., Ragusa, N., Avola, R., Avitabile, M., Giuffrida, A.M. Neurochem. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Degradation profile of mRNA in a dead rat body: basic semi-quantification study. Inoue, H., Kimura, A., Tuji, T. Forensic Sci. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Mutagenicity of 1,3-butadiene at the Hprt locus of T-lymphocytes following inhalation exposures of female mice and rats. Meng, Q., Henderson, R.F., Chen, T., Heflich, R.H., Walker, D.M., Bauer, M.J., Reilly, A.A., Walker, V.E. Mutat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. IMP dehydrogenase from the intracellular parasitic protozoan Eimeria tenella and its inhibition by mycophenolic acid. Hupe, D.J., Azzolina, B.A., Behrens, N.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Dual role of hypoxanthine in the reoxygenation of hypoxic isolated rat hearts. Tarantola, M., Motterlini, R., Beretta, M., Samaja, M. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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