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Gene Review

Actb  -  actin, beta

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Actin, cytoplasmic 1, Beta-actin
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Disease relevance of Actb

  • CO in hypoxia downregulated sm-alpha-actin and strongly upregulated beta-actin [1].
  • The expressions of glyseraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-actin, cyclophilin, and RPL13A were examined in order to validate the appropriate housekeeping genes for a long duration after inducing cerebral ischemia [2].
  • PTH receptor, beta-actin, and cyclophilin mRNA levels all decreased after ischemia [3].
  • Strikingly large elevations in the steady-state levels of beta-actin mRNA in CCl4-treated liver were also observed, which may be related to the known regenerative processes associated with acute liver toxicity [4].
  • Correlation of beta-actin messenger RNA localization with metastatic potential in rat adenocarcinoma cell lines [5].

Psychiatry related information on Actb


High impact information on Actb

  • The mRNA of AQP2 was increased early during pregnancy: AQP2/beta actin: P7 196+/-17.9, P14 200+/-6.8, and P20 208+/-15.5%, P < 0.005 vs. NP (100+/-11.1%) [8].
  • Addition of TGF beta 1 was associated with increased expression of beta-actin when standardized to a constitutive transcript (GAPDH) [9].
  • Increases in both "high" and "low" affinity sites were seen, with no changes in the apparent Kd's. Total RNA, beta-actin mRNA, and EGF-R mRNA were increased 50-70% in ethanol exposed cells [10].
  • Accumulation of strand breaks was not observed in other exons of the p53 gene, in the Apc and beta-actin genes, or at the genomic level [11].
  • RNA was prepared from the duodenum, and peptide and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CCK, somatostatin, and beta-actin were analyzed by hybridization with complementary DNA probes [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Actb


Biological context of Actb

  • The nucleotide sequence of the rat beta-actin gene was determined [16].
  • Transfection of an EGFP construct, also with the zipcode, resulted in recruitment of endogenous ZBP1 and beta-actin mRNA into dendrites and similarly increased the density of dendritic filopodia [17].
  • Normalization using Actb most appropriately explained the expression levels in a congenic strain for chromosome 3. eQTL analysis with precise measurement of expression levels and appropriate normalization was shown to be effective for mapping loci that control gene expression in vivo [18].
  • In particular, the genes coding for the minimum motility machine that regulates beta-actin polymerization at the leading edge and, therefore, the motility and chemotaxis of carcinoma cells, were dramatically up-regulated [19].
  • Activity-dependent trafficking and dynamic localization of zipcode binding protein 1 and beta-actin mRNA in dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons [20].

Anatomical context of Actb

  • We investigated the molecular mechanism and function of beta-actin mRNA localization in dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons [17].
  • Previous studies have shown that beta-actin mRNA localization to the leading edge of fibroblasts or the growth cones of developing neurites involved a specific interaction between a zipcode sequence in the 3' untranslated region and the mRNA-binding protein zipcode-binding protein-1 (ZBP1) [17].
  • Extremely high expression of beta-actin mRNA in osteoclasts resorbing alveolar bone located at the distal area of the developing molar tooth germ in newborn rats [21].
  • Localization of a beta-actin messenger ribonucleoprotein complex with zipcode-binding protein modulates the density of dendritic filopodia and filopodial synapses [17].
  • By use of in situ hybridization, we obtained clear data showing that osteoclasts facing the distal part of a developing molar tooth germ expressed extremely high levels of beta-actin mRNA in comparison with other osteoclasts observed in the mandibular bone surface [21].

Associations of Actb with chemical compounds


Co-localisations of Actb

  • A population of ZBP1 granules colocalized with beta-actin mRNA, and their spatial association in dendrites was increased by KCl depolarization [20].

Regulatory relationships of Actb

  • Knockdown of SMA (70% reduction) using RNA interference did not affect beta-actin but inhibited force-induced p38 phosphorylation by 50% [27].
  • The TRH-induced increases in c-fos and beta-actin mRNA may play a role in the secretory response [15].
  • Renal B2KR and TGF-beta mRNA levels expressed relative to beta-actin mRNA levels and CTGF and TGF-betaRII protein levels were significantly increased in D and D+I rats compared with C rats (P < 0.03, n = 5) [28].
  • The rats of transcription of both beta- and gamma-actin mRNAs were stimulated by T3 during the early phase but that of beta-actin mRNAs was relatively more sensitive to T3 than gamma-actin mRNA [29].

Other interactions of Actb


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Actb

  • To address this question we have used Edman sequencing and western blotting to identify six rat brain proteins that bind the beta-actin element (zipcode) [33].
  • Liver samples were collected for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, iNOS, and beta-actin) [34].
  • In the quantitative polymerase chain reaction study, a comparison of the ratio of AQP2 and beta-actin mRNA (MAQP2/Mbeta-actin) was made between water-injected and OPC-31260-injected rats [35].
  • Results were normalized to expression of rat beta-actin by quantitative densitometry of autoradiograms [36].
  • ANP mRNA level per pair of atria (related to total atrial RNA), determined by liquid hybridization (controlled by northern blot analysis), was increased by 38% in infarcted rats (p less than 0.05 vs. controls), but the ratio of atrial ANP mRNA relative to atrial beta-actin mRNA levels was not increased [37].


  1. Carbon monoxide promotes hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling. Carraway, M.S., Ghio, A.J., Suliman, H.B., Carter, J.D., Whorton, A.R., Piantadosi, C.A. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. The quantification of ADAMTS expression in an animal model of cerebral ischemia using real-time PCR. Tian, Y.F., Zhang, P.B., Xiao, X.L., Zhang, J.S., Zhao, J.J., Kang, Q.Y., Chen, X.L., Qiu, F., Liu, Y. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in the rat glomerulus and tubule during recovery from renal ischemia. Soifer, N.E., Van Why, S.K., Ganz, M.B., Kashgarian, M., Siegel, N.J., Stewart, A.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of TGF beta gene expression in rat liver intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. Armendariz-Borunda, J., Seyer, J.M., Kang, A.H., Raghow, R. FASEB J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Correlation of beta-actin messenger RNA localization with metastatic potential in rat adenocarcinoma cell lines. Shestakova, E.A., Wyckoff, J., Jones, J., Singer, R.H., Condeelis, J. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization and sleep deprivation-induced expression modulation of dendrin, a novel dendritic protein in rat brain neurons. Neuner-Jehle, M., Denizot, J.P., Borbély, A.A., Mallet, J. J. Neurosci. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Melanin-concentrating hormone is a potent anorectic peptide regulated by food-deprivation and glucopenia in the rat. Presse, F., Sorokovsky, I., Max, J.P., Nicolaidis, S., Nahon, J.L. Neuroscience (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Upregulation of aquaporin 2 water channel expression in pregnant rats. Ohara, M., Martin, P.Y., Xu, D.L., St John, J., Pattison, T.A., Kim, J.K., Schrier, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of transforming growth factor expression in rat intestinal epithelial cell lines. Suemori, S., Ciacci, C., Podolsky, D.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Arrest of epidermal growth factor-dependent growth in fetal hepatocytes after ethanol exposure. Henderson, G.I., Baskin, G.S., Horbach, J., Porter, P., Schenker, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of dietary folate on DNA strand breaks within mutation-prone exons of the p53 gene in rat colon. Kim, Y.I., Shirwadkar, S., Choi, S.W., Puchyr, M., Wang, Y., Mason, J.B. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Influence of food deprivation on intestinal cholecystokinin and somatostatin. Kanayama, S., Liddle, R.A. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Cyclosporine induces elevated procollagen alpha 1 (I) mRNA levels in the rat renal cortex. Nast, C.C., Adler, S.G., Artishevsky, A., Kresser, C.T., Ahmed, K., Anderson, P.S. Kidney Int. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Agmatine inhibits the proliferation of rat hepatoma cells by modulation of polyamine metabolism. Gardini, G., Cravanzola, C., Autelli, R., Testore, G., Cesa, R., Morando, L., Solinas, S.P., Muzio, G., Grillo, M.A., Colombatto, S. J. Hepatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone increases the levels of c-fos and beta-actin mRNA in GH3/B6 pituitary tumor cells. Weisman, A.S., Tixier-Vidal, A., Gourdji, D. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. The nucleotide sequence of the rat cytoplasmic beta-actin gene. Nudel, U., Zakut, R., Shani, M., Neuman, S., Levy, Z., Yaffe, D. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Localization of a beta-actin messenger ribonucleoprotein complex with zipcode-binding protein modulates the density of dendritic filopodia and filopodial synapses. Eom, T., Antar, L.N., Singer, R.H., Bassell, G.J. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis of 13 genes in the rat prostate. Yamashita, S., Wakazono, K., Nomoto, T., Tsujino, Y., Kuramoto, T., Ushijima, T. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification and testing of a gene expression signature of invasive carcinoma cells within primary mammary tumors. Wang, W., Goswami, S., Lapidus, K., Wells, A.L., Wyckoff, J.B., Sahai, E., Singer, R.H., Segall, J.E., Condeelis, J.S. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Activity-dependent trafficking and dynamic localization of zipcode binding protein 1 and beta-actin mRNA in dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons. Tiruchinapalli, D.M., Oleynikov, Y., Kelic, S., Shenoy, S.M., Hartley, A., Stanton, P.K., Singer, R.H., Bassell, G.J. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Extremely high expression of beta-actin mRNA in osteoclasts resorbing alveolar bone located at the distal area of the developing molar tooth germ in newborn rats. Kukita, T., Kukita, A., Xu, L., Toh, K., Tang, Q., Nomiyama, H., Iijima, T. Journal of electron microscopy. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Myocardium expression of connexin 43, SERCA2a, and myosin heavy chain isoforms are preserved in nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia rat model. Baptista, M.J., Recamán, M., Melo-Rocha, G., Nogueira-Silva, C., Roriz, J.M., Soares-Fernandes, J., Gonzaga, S., Santos, M., Leite-Moreira, A., Areias, J.C., Correia-Pinto, J. J. Pediatr. Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Tissue-specific gene expression results from a purine- and pyrimidine-free diet and 6-mercaptopurine in the rat small intestine and colon. Leleiko, N.S., Martin, B.A., Walsh, M., Kazlow, P., Rabinowitz, S., Sterling, K. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Caveolae from luminal plasmalemma of rat lung endothelium: microdomains enriched in caveolin, Ca(2+)-ATPase, and inositol trisphosphate receptor. Schnitzer, J.E., Oh, P., Jacobson, B.S., Dvorak, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Doxorubicin selectively inhibits muscle gene expression in cardiac muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. Ito, H., Miller, S.C., Billingham, M.E., Akimoto, H., Torti, S.V., Wade, R., Gahlmann, R., Lyons, G., Kedes, L., Torti, F.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Fast repair of O6-ethylguanine, but not O6-methylguanine, in transcribed genes prevents mutation of H-ras in rat mammary tumorigenesis induced by ethylnitrosourea in place of methylnitrosourea. Engelbergs, J., Thomale, J., Galhoff, A., Rajewsky, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Smooth muscle actin determines mechanical force-induced p38 activation. Wang, J., Fan, J., Laschinger, C., Arora, P.D., Kapus, A., Seth, A., McCulloch, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Mechanisms through which bradykinin promotes glomerular injury in diabetes. Tan, Y., Wang, B., Keum, J.S., Jaffa, A.A. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Regulation of beta- and gamma-actin mRNA by thyroid hormone in the developing rat brain. Sarkar, S., Chaudhury, S., Sarkar, P.K. Neuroreport (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Increased beta-actin and tubulin polymerization in regrowing axons: relationship to the conditioning lesion effect. Lund, L.M., Machado, V.M., McQuarrie, I.G. Exp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Mechanisms of angiotensin II- and arginine vasopressin-induced increases in protein synthesis and content in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Evidence for selective increases in smooth muscle isoactin expression. Turla, M.B., Thompson, M.M., Corjay, M.H., Owens, G.K. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential effect of platelet-derived growth factor- versus serum-induced growth on smooth muscle alpha-actin and nonmuscle beta-actin mRNA expression in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Corjay, M.H., Thompson, M.M., Lynch, K.R., Owens, G.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. RNA trafficking and stabilization elements associate with multiple brain proteins. Snee, M., Kidd, G.J., Munro, T.P., Smith, R. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Crocetin Inhibits mRNA Expression for Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, Interleukin-1{beta}, and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Hemorrhagic Shock. Yang, R., Tan, X., Thomas, A.M., Shen, J., Qureshi, N., Morrison, D.C., Van Way, C.W. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. The effects of V2 antagonist (OPC-31260) on endolymphatic hydrops. Takeda, T., Sawada, S., Takeda, S., Kitano, H., Suzuki, M., Kakigi, A., Takeuchi, S. Hear. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Quantitative analysis of aquaporin mRNA expression in rat tissues by RNase protection assay. Umenishi, F., Verkman, A.S., Gropper, M.A. DNA Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Atrial natriuretic peptide in a rat model of cardiac failure. Atrial and ventricular mRNA, atrial content, plasma levels, and effect of volume loading. Drexler, H., Hänze, J., Finckh, M., Lu, W., Just, H., Lang, R.E. Circulation (1989) [Pubmed]
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