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Gene Review

Agxt  -  alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: AGT, Agt1, Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase, SPT, Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase, mitochondrial, ...
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Disease relevance of Agxt


High impact information on Agxt

  • The ability of NNKOAc-treated DNA to inhibit AGT was destroyed when the DNA was subjected to neutral thermal hydrolysis [6].
  • When hepatocytes had been precultured for 16-18 h under serum- and hormone-free conditions, the addition of glucagon caused (after a lag period of about 2 h) a remarkable increase in the cellular level of SPT/AGT mRNA by 4 h in a time- and dose-dependent manner [7].
  • The effects of glucagon on serine: pyruvate/alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (SPT/AGT) gene expression were studied in primary cultured rat hepatocytes [7].
  • The glucagon-induced expression of the SPT/AGT gene was also turned off by dexamethasone [7].
  • When 2 x 5 mg/kg SPT (a dose selective for A(1)-receptors, as it did not affect the protection by the A(3) selective agonist IB-MECA, 51+/-3%) and MRS 1191 were combined the protection by IP was abolished (IS=67+/-2%) [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Agxt


Biological context of Agxt


Anatomical context of Agxt


Associations of Agxt with chemical compounds

  • It is based on the use of the suicide repair enzyme O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT) to repair such adducts in DNA in competition with an oligonucleotide containing a single residue of O6-methylguanine, end labeled to high specific activity [2].
  • It is concluded that procarbazine (but not MNU) causes a decrease in cellular AGT concentrations by a mechanism additional to suicide repair of O6-meG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[13]
  • The improved functional recovery was not significantly affected by an ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor, alpha,beta-methylene adenosine diphosphate (AMP-CP; 100 microM), alone but was inhibited by AMP-CP plus SPT, suramin, or RB [14].
  • Hepatic alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase activity and its mRNA level were significantly lower in vitamin B6 deficient rats than in control rats [5].
  • Therefore, we evaluated hepatic alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase activity and oxalate metabolism in vitamin B6 deficient rats [5].

Other interactions of Agxt

  • These properties and kinetic parameters of the enzyme are remarkably similar to those previously described for mitochondrial alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase isoenzyme 1 from glucagon-injected rat liver [Noguchi, Okuno, Takada, Minatogawa, Okai & Kido (1978, Biochem. J. 169, 113-122] [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Agxt

  • Gene titration experiments in transgenic animals have demonstrated that small increases in the basal expression of AGT can lead to elevated blood pressure [1].
  • RESULTS: At the end of reperfusion, recovery of rate-force product was enhanced in the PC and CCPA groups (62 and 67% of preischemic value) compared to the ischemic control hearts (IC, 32%; P < 0.05), whereas protection was abolished in the SPT hearts (20%; P < 0.05 vs. PC) [3].
  • In contrast to these observations, O6-meG accumulated smoothly during a 10 day administration of MNU (1 or 10 mg/kg/day) to reach a steady-state within 5-6 days, while liver AGT was partially depleted after the high dose and recovered fully within 72 h of cessation of treatment [13].
  • SPT (100 mumol/l) and HOE 140 did not interfere with ischemic preconditioning (infarct size: 7.8 +/- 1.1%) [16].
  • In the present study, the location of the rat SPT/AGT gene was determined to be in the q34-q36 region of chromosome 9 by fluorescence in situ hybridization [17].


  1. Contribution of Sp1 to initiation of transcription of angiotensinogen. Rohrwasser, A., Zhang, S., Dillon, H.F., Inoue, I., Callaway, C.W., Hillas, E., Lalouel, J.M. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel, sensitive assay for O6-methyl- and O6-ethylguanine in DNA, based on repair by the enzyme O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase in competition with an oligonucleotide containing O6-methylguanine. Souliotis, V.L., Kyrtopoulos, S.A. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Ischemic preconditioning and glucose metabolism during low-flow ischemia: role of the adenosine A1 receptor. de Jonge, R., de Jong, J.W. Cardiovasc. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Alkylation of DNA in F344 rat thymus following administration of 1-n-propyl-1-nitrosourea in vivo and comparison of O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase activity in thymus from F344 and Long-Evans rats in vitro. Morimoto, K., Tanaka, A., Yamaha, T., Takahashi, A. Carcinogenesis (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Hepatic alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase activity and oxalate metabolism in vitamin B6 deficient rats. Nishijima, S., Sugaya, K., Morozumi, M., Hatano, T., Ogawa, Y. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Pyridyloxobutyl DNA adducts inhibit the repair of O6-methylguanine. Peterson, L.A., Liu, X.K., Hecht, S.S. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation by glucagon of serine: pyruvate/alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase gene expression in cultured rat hepatocytes. Uchida, C., Funai, T., Oda, T., Ohbayashi, K., Ichiyama, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of adenosine in ischemic preconditioning in rats depends critically on the duration of the stimulus and involves both A(1) and A(3) receptors. Liem, D.A., van den Doel, M.A., de Zeeuw, S., Verdouw, P.D., Duncker, D.J. Cardiovasc. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Resveratrol provides late-phase cardioprotection by means of a nitric oxide- and adenosine-mediated mechanism. Bradamante, S., Barenghi, L., Piccinini, F., Bertelli, A.A., De Jonge, R., Beemster, P., De Jong, J.W. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization and sequence analysis of rat serine:pyruvate/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase gene. Oda, T., Nishiyama, K., Ichiyama, A. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Subcellular distribution of pyruvate (glyoxylate) aminotransferases in rat liver. Noguchi, T., Minatogawa, Y., Takada, Y., Okuno, E., Kido, R. Biochem. J. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. DNA methyl-adduct dosimetry and O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyl transferase activity determinations in rat mammary carcinogenesis by procarbazine and N-methylnitrosourea. Fong, L.Y., Jensen, D.E., Magee, P.N. Carcinogenesis (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential effects of procarbazine and methylnitrosourea on the accumulation of O6-methylguanine and the depletion and recovery of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in rat tissues. Valavanis, C., Souliotis, V.L., Kyrtopoulos, S.A. Carcinogenesis (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Complementary role of extracellular ATP and adenosine in ischemic preconditioning in the rat heart. Ninomiya, H., Otani, H., Lu, K., Uchiyama, T., Kido, M., Imamura, H. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Purification and properties of peroxisomal pyruvate (glyoxylate) aminotransferase from rat liver. Noguchi, T., Takada, Y. Biochem. J. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Bradykinin protects against infarction but does not mediate ischemic preconditioning in the isolated rat heart. Bugge, E., Ytrehus, K. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. A single serine:pyruvate aminotransferase gene on rat chromosome 9q34-q36. Mori, M., Oda, T., Nishiyama, K., Serikawa, T., Yamada, J., Ichiyama, A. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
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