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Chemical Compound Review

Natulan     4-[(2- methylhydrazinyl)methyl]-N- propan-2...

Synonyms: Natulanar, Procarbazin, Procarbazina, procarbazine, Ibenzmethyzin, ...
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Disease relevance of Procarbazine hydrochloride


High impact information on Procarbazine hydrochloride


Chemical compound and disease context of Procarbazine hydrochloride


Biological context of Procarbazine hydrochloride


Anatomical context of Procarbazine hydrochloride


Associations of Procarbazine hydrochloride with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Procarbazine hydrochloride

  • PURPOSE: The Rop (radial opacity) mutation, which was recovered in a mutagenicity screen after paternal treatment with procarbazine, was analyzed to determine phenotype, chromosomal localization, candidate genes, and molecular lesion [28].
  • The high proportion of small colony tk -/- mutants induced by procarbazine together with the far weaker mutagenic response at the hemizygous hgprt locus in these same cells is interpreted in terms of a chromosomal or multi-gene mutational mechanism [29].
  • We also found a positive association between MGMT methylation and clinical response in those patients receiving BCNU (n = 35, P = 0.041) or procarbazine/1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (n = 17, P = 0.043) as first-line chemotherapy [30].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant exposure to anticonvulsants is associated with procarbazine hypersensitivity reactions, possibly though a reactive intermediate generated by CYP3A isoform induction [31].
  • Postoperative high-voltage radiotherapy (31 patients, dosage 4,000--6,000 rads) and combined chemotherapy consisting of CCNU, vincristine, amethopterine, and procarbazine in 15-day circles (COMP protocol) (12 patients) showed the same median survival time of 10.6 months and comparable recurrence-free intervals of 6.8 and 7.0 months, respectively [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Procarbazine hydrochloride

  • The second patient underwent a successful transplantation after similar preparation, except that procarbazine was omitted [33].
  • A repeat transplant, for which the patient was prepared with anti-human thymocyte serum, total-body irradiation and procarbazine, resulted in complete donor engraftment [33].
  • Three and 5 months after cessation of treatment, a large number of tubules showed a complete restoration of structural morphology in 30-45% of the animals that received procarbazine and the LH-RH agonist or antagonist [8].
  • When the combination treatment of the human medulloblastoma xenograft with procarbazine was used, the ILS was significantly increased in all four experiments, ranging from 25 to 41%, and was superior to single-modality treatment in all but the 1050-rad treatment, where it showed an equal effect [34].
  • Procarbazine causes dose-dependent decreases in sperm count after a single i.p. injection in (C57BL/6 X DBA/2)F1 male mice [35].


  1. Chemotherapy of advanced Hodgkin's disease with MOPP, ABVD, or MOPP alternating with ABVD. Canellos, G.P., Anderson, J.R., Propert, K.J., Nissen, N., Cooper, M.R., Henderson, E.S., Green, M.R., Gottlieb, A., Peterson, B.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Assessment of interaction among three carcinogens on rat mammary carcinogenesis in a factorially designed experiment. Shellabarger, C.J., Machado, S.G., Holtzman, S., Stone, J.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Advanced diffuse histiocytic lymphoma, a potentially curable disease. DeVita, V.T., Canellos, G.P., Chabner, B., Schein, P., Hubbard, S.P., Young, R.C. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Prolonged initial remission in patients with nodular mixed lymphoma. Longo, D.L., Young, R.C., Hubbard, S.M., Wesley, M., Fisher, R.I., Jaffe, E., Berard, C., DeVita, V.T. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Leukemia following Hodgkin's disease. Kaldor, J.M., Day, N.E., Clarke, E.A., Van Leeuwen, F.E., Henry-Amar, M., Fiorentino, M.V., Bell, J., Pedersen, D., Band, P., Assouline, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Incidence of second cancers in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease. Boivin, J.F., Hutchison, G.B., Zauber, A.G., Bernstein, L., Davis, F.G., Michel, R.P., Zanke, B., Tan, C.T., Fuller, L.M., Mauch, P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Influence of chemotherapeutic agents on chorionic gonadotropin-alpha subunit secretion in a human lung cancer cell line (ChaGo): discordance of cytotoxic and secretory effects. Broder, L.E., Weintraub, B.D., Rosen, S.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Protective effects of analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone against chemotherapy-induced testicular damage in rats. Karashima, T., Zalatnai, A., Schally, A.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Long-term results and competing risk analysis of the H89 trial in patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: a study by the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA). Fermé, C., Mounier, N., Casasnovas, O., Brice, P., Divine, M., Sonet, A., Bouafia, F., Bastard-Stamatoullas, A., Bordessoule, D., Voillat, L., Reman, O., Blanc, M., Gisselbrecht, C. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Alternating drug combinations in the treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease. Santoro, A., Bonadonna, G., Bonfante, V., Valagussa, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Combination chemotherapy of advanced diffuse histiocytic lymphoma with the six-drug COP-BLAM regimen. Laurence, J., Coleman, M., Allen, S.L., Silver, R.T., Pasmantier, M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Fanconi's anemia treated by allogeneic marrow transplantation. Deeg, H.J., Storb, R., Thomas, E.D., Appelbaum, F., Buckner, C.D., Clift, R.A., Doney, K., Johnson, L., Sanders, J.E., Stewart, P., Sullivan, K.M., Witherspoon, R.P. Blood (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Safety and efficacy of temozolomide in patients with recurrent anaplastic oligodendrogliomas after standard radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Chinot, O.L., Honore, S., Dufour, H., Barrie, M., Figarella-Branger, D., Muracciole, X., Braguer, D., Martin, P.M., Grisoli, F. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Glial cell-specific differences in repair of O6-methylguanine. LeDoux, S.P., Williams, B.A., Hollensworth, B.S., Shen, C., Thomale, J., Rajewsky, M.F., Brent, T.P., Wilson, G.L. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Protection of spermatogenesis in rats from the cytotoxic procarbazine by the depot formulation of Zoladex, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. Ward, J.A., Robinson, J., Furr, B.J., Shalet, S.M., Morris, I.D. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Therapy-related leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome: clinical, cytogenetic, and prognostic features. Kantarjian, H.M., Keating, M.J., Walters, R.S., Smith, T.L., Cork, A., McCredie, K.B., Freireich, E.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Cytotoxicity and DNA damage caused by the azoxy metabolites of procarbazine in L1210 tumor cells. Erikson, J.M., Tweedie, D.J., Ducore, J.M., Prough, R.A. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Time dependence for the protective effect of androgen from procarbazine-induced damage to rat spermatogenesis. Delic, J.I., Harwood, J.R., Stanley, J.A. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Pregnancy outcome of partners of male survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Green, D.M., Whitton, J.A., Stovall, M., Mertens, A.C., Donaldson, S.S., Ruymann, F.B., Pendergrass, T.W., Robison, L.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Gynecomastia and gonadal dysfunction in adolescent boys treated with combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Sherins, R.J., Olweny, C.L., Ziegler, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Hormonal protection from procarbazine-induced testicular damage is selective for survival and recovery of stem spermatogonia. Meistrich, M.L., Wilson, G., Ye, W.S., Kurdoglu, B., Parchuri, N., Terry, N.H. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Accumulation of O6-methylguanine in human blood leukocyte DNA during exposure to procarbazine and its relationships with dose and repair. Souliotis, V.L., Kaila, S., Boussiotis, V.A., Pangalis, G.A., Kyrtopoulos, S.A. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Successful use of multiagent immunosuppression in the bone marrow transplantation of sensitized patients. Parkman, R., Rappeport, J., Camitta, B., Levey, R.H., Nathan, D.G. Blood (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Vinblastine, bleomycin, and methotrexate: an effective adjuvant in favorable Hodgkin's disease. Horning, S.J., Hoppe, R.T., Hancock, S.L., Rosenberg, S.A. J. Clin. Oncol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Combined modality induction therapy without maintenance chemotherapy for small cell carcinoma of the lung. Feld, R., Evans, W.K., DeBoer, G., Quirt, I.C., Shepherd, F.A., Yeoh, J.L., Pringle, J.F., Payne, D.G., Herman, J.G., Chamberlain, D. J. Clin. Oncol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Intensive chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation for relapsed Hodgkin's disease. Reece, D.E., Barnett, M.J., Connors, J.M., Fairey, R.N., Fay, J.W., Greer, J.P., Herzig, G.P., Herzig, R.H., Klingemann, H.G., LeMaistre, C.F. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Gliomatosis cerebri: molecular pathology and clinical course. Herrlinger, U., Felsberg, J., Küker, W., Bornemann, A., Plasswilm, L., Knobbe, C.B., Strik, H., Wick, W., Meyermann, R., Dichgans, J., Bamberg, M., Reifenberger, G., Weller, M. Ann. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Crygf(Rop): the first mutation in the Crygf gene causing a unique radial lens opacity. Graw, J., Klopp, N., Neuhäuser-Klaus, A., Favor, J., Löster, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Procarbazine is a potent mutagen at the heterozygous thymidine kinase (tk +/-) locus of mouse lymphoma assay. Clive, D., Turner, N., Krehl, R. Mutagenesis (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. CpG island hypermethylation of the DNA repair enzyme methyltransferase predicts response to temozolomide in primary gliomas. Paz, M.F., Yaya-Tur, R., Rojas-Marcos, I., Reynes, G., Pollan, M., Aguirre-Cruz, L., García-Lopez, J.L., Piquer, J., Safont, M.J., Balaña, C., Sanchez-Cespedes, M., García-Villanueva, M., Arribas, L., Esteller, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Anticonvulsant usage is associated with an increased risk of procarbazine hypersensitivity reactions in patients with brain tumors. Lehmann, D.F., Hurteau, T.E., Newman, N., Coyle, T.E. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Combination chemotherapy (COMP protocol) and radiotherapy of anaplastic supratentorial gliomas. Jellinger, K., Kothbauer, P., Volc, D., Vollmer, R., Weiss, R. Acta neurochirurgica. (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. Complete correction of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome by allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation. Parkman, R., Rappeport, J., Geha, R., Belli, J., Cassady, R., Levey, R., Nathan, D.G., Rosen, F.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  34. Combined modality treatment using radiation and/or chemotherapy in an athymic nude mouse-human medulloblastoma and glioblastoma xenograft model. Slagel, D.E., Feola, J., Houchens, D.P., Ovejera, A.A. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  35. Separate mechanisms for procarbazine spermatotoxicity and anticancer activity. Horstman, M.G., Meadows, G.G., Yost, G.S. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
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