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Gene Review

B4GALT1  -  UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4-...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: B4GAL-T1, Beta-1,4-GalTase 1, Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1, Beta4Gal-T1, CDG2D, ...
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Disease relevance of B4GALT1

  • 3. Here we studied the combined effect of the two drugs in the human lymphoma cell line U-937 GTB [1].
  • Apoptosis induced by calcein acetoxymethyl ester in the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U-937 GTB [2].
  • In an attempt to produce a beta4gal-T1 form suitable for structural studies, we combined site-directed mutagenesis and heterologous expression in Escherichia coli [3].
  • In previous hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment studies, Black patients not only had a lower sustained viral response (SVR) rate to interferon and ribavirin (RBV) than non-Black patients but also a higher frequency of HCV genotype 1 (GT-1) infection [4].
  • SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics of University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, Delhi, India. METHODS: A total of 33 cases of tuberculosis of the spine with paraplegia were evaluated serially for the severity of the neurological deficit by grading systems as suggested by Tuli and ASIA score, during the course of treatment [5].

High impact information on B4GALT1

  • Our analyses of normal erythrocytes also revealed complex gangliosides with the approximate chromatographic mobilities of GD1b and GT1, and several gangliosides containing N-acetylglucosamine [6].
  • Translocation of protein kinase C from cytosol to the particulate fraction occurred at about 10-fold higher concentrations of phorbol ester than the adhesion response in U-937 GTB cells, under otherwise similar conditions, whereas no difference in sensitivity was observed between the sublines [7].
  • GTA and GTB have a characteristic (211)DVD(213) motif that coordinates to a Mn(2+) ion shown to be critical in donor binding and catalysis [8].
  • Kinetic characterizations of the M214T and M214V mutants revealed they both had GTA and GTB activity consistent with the serology [8].
  • Furthermore, we observed that beta-d-galactose and alpha-d-galactose bind weakly to GTB [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of B4GALT1

  • To characterize the metabolic events over time, the lymphoma cell line U-937 GTB was exposed to CHS 828 and the structurally related mitochondrial inhibitor meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) [10].
  • Recently we showed that J1 (L-melphalanyl-p-L-fluorophenylalanine ethyl ester), an alkylating nitrogen mustard-containing dipeptide, exhibited strong cytotoxic activity in fresh human tumor samples in addition to rapid and pronounced inhibition of macromolecular syntheses and cellular respiration in the human tumor lymphoma cell line U-937 GTB [11].

Biological context of B4GALT1

  • These results suggest that the p58GTA stable transfection into human hepatocarcinoma cells could enhance the two beta1,4-GT1 subcellular pool activities independently and change its cell-cycle without modifying the beta-1,4-linked galactose residues on most membrane proteins [12].
  • ESTs with sequences similar to that of beta4Gal-T1 could be grouped into at least two non-identical sequence sets [13].
  • In the absence of UDP, the 3-amino analog can be accommodated by either GTA or GTB with the l-Fuc residue partially occupying the vacant UDP binding site [14].
  • Analysis of the substrate specificity of the secreted form revealed that the enzyme catalyzed glycosylation of glycolipids with terminal beta-GlcNAc; however, in contrast to beta4Gal-T1, -T2, and -T3, this enzyme did not transfer galactose to asialo-agalacto-fetuin, asialo-agalacto-transferrin, or ovalbumin [15].
  • Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the novel ESTs with beta4Gal-T1 revealed conservation of short sequence motifs as well as cysteine residues previously shown to be important for the function of beta4Gal-T1 [13].

Anatomical context of B4GALT1


Associations of B4GALT1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of B4GALT1

  • All intron/exon boundaries were similarly positioned in beta4Gal-T1, -T2, and -T3. beta4Gal-T4 represents a new member of the beta4-galactosyltransferase family [15].
  • UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T) and UDP-Gal: GlcNAc-R beta 1----4 galactosyl-transferase (beta 4Gal-T) exhibited similar activities in both Tn+ and TF+ T cell clones [20].
  • In patients with rheumatoid arthritis there is an increased proportion of IgG which lacks galactose and correspondingly lower levels of beta1, 4-galactosyltransferase (beta4Gal-T) activity [21].
  • It could be demonstrated for the first time, by use of UDP-6-biotinyl-Gal as a donor substrate, that the human recombinant galactosyltransferases beta3Gal-T5, beta4Gal-T1, and beta4Gal-T4 mediate biotinylation of the neoglycoconjugate bovine serum albumin-p-aminophenyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide (BSA-(GlcNAc)17) and ovalbumin [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of B4GALT1

  • The concentration of PKC, measured by immunoblotting, was reduced by 34 and 24% in U-937 RES and U-937 RESREV cells, respectively, as compared to the wild-type U-937 GTB line [23].
  • We further demonstrated using cDNA cloning and in situ hybridization that novel zinc-finger proteins (GATA-GT1 and GATA-GT2) are present in the gastric parietal cells and bind to this motif [24].
  • CIFN on a daily basis might be a favourable therapy regimen for patients with GT1 and high viral load or for non-responders after failure of standard therapy [25].
  • The effect of Colcemid on satellite association frequencies was investigated in human cell lines U-937 GTB, SC-N-MC, HL-60, and Raji by silver staining method [26].


  1. The combination of the antitumoural pyridyl cyanoguanidine CHS 828 and etoposide in vitro--from cytotoxic synergy to complete inhibition of apoptosis. Martinsson, P., Ekelund, S., Nygren, P., Larsson, R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Apoptosis induced by calcein acetoxymethyl ester in the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U-937 GTB. Liminga, G., Martinsson, P., Jonsson, B., Nygren, P., Larsson, R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Improving solubility of catalytic domain of human beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 through rationally designed amino acid replacements. Malissard, M., Berger, E.G. Eur. J. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Black patients with chronic hepatitis C have a lower sustained viral response rate than non-Blacks with genotype 1, but the same with genotypes 2/3, and this is not explained by more frequent dose reductions of interferon and ribavirin*. Bräu, N., Bini, E.J., Currie, S., Shen, H., Schmidt, W.N., King, P.D., Ho, S.B., Cheung, R.C., Hu, K.Q., Anand, B.S., Simon, F.R., Aytaman, A., Johnson, D.P., Awad, J.A., Ahmad, J., Mendenhall, C.L., Pedrosa, M.C., Moseley, R.H., Hagedorn, C.H., Waters, B., Chang, K.M., Morgan, T.R., Rossi, S.J., Jeffers, L.J., Wright, T.L. J. Viral Hepat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Evaluation of systems of grading of neurological deficit in tuberculosis of spine. Jain, A.K., Sinha, S. Spinal Cord (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Abnormalities in the glycosphingolipid content of human Pk and p erythrocytes. Marcus, D.M., Naiki, M., Kundu, S.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence for separate control by phorbol esters of CD18-dependent adhesion and translocation of protein kinase C in U-937 cells. Skoglund, G., Patarroyo, M., Forsbeck, K., Nilsson, K., Ingelman-Sundberg, M. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Structural Effects of Naturally Occurring Human Blood Group B Galactosyltransferase Mutations Adjacent to the DXD Motif. Persson, M., Letts, J.A., Hosseini-Maaf, B., Borisova, S.N., Palcic, M.M., Evans, S.V., Olsson, M.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Fragment-based Screening of the Donor Substrate Specificity of Human Blood Group B Galactosyltransferase Using Saturation Transfer Difference NMR. Blume, A., Angulo, J., Biet, T., Peters, H., Benie, A.J., Palcic, M., Peters, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Metabolic effects of the cytotoxic guanidino-containing drug CHS 828 in human U-937 lymphoma cells. Ekelund, S., Larsson, R., Nygren, P. Anticancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Structure-activity relationship for alkylating dipeptide nitrogen mustard derivatives. Gullbo, J., Tullberg, M., Våbenø, J., Ehrsson, H., Lewensohn, R., Nygren, P., Larsson, R., Luthman, K. Oncol. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of p58GTA on beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 activity and cell-cycle in human hepatocarcinoma cells. Zhang, S.W., Xu, S.L., Cai, M.M., Yan, J., Zhu, X.Y., Hu, Y., Gu, J.X. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. A family of human beta4-galactosyltransferases. Cloning and expression of two novel UDP-galactose:beta-n-acetylglucosamine beta1, 4-galactosyltransferases, beta4Gal-T2 and beta4Gal-T3. Almeida, R., Amado, M., David, L., Levery, S.B., Holmes, E.H., Merkx, G., van Kessel, A.G., Rygaard, E., Hassan, H., Bennett, E., Clausen, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. The influence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in differential recognition of inhibitory acceptor analogs by human ABO(H) blood group A and B glycosyltransferases. Nguyen, H.P., Seto, N.O., Cai, Y., Leinala, E.K., Borisova, S.N., Palcic, M.M., Evans, S.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning of a novel member of the UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta1,4-galactosyltransferase family, beta4Gal-T4, involved in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. Schwientek, T., Almeida, R., Levery, S.B., Holmes, E.H., Bennett, E., Clausen, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Cytotoxic effect of TNF-alpha and abnormal regulation of cAMP in the retinoid resistant cell line U937/GTB. Botilsrud, M., Kvam, L., Blomhoff, H.K., Norum, K.R., Blomhoff, R. Anticancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Electrokinetic and electrostatic properties of bilayers containing gangliosides GM1, GD1a, or GT1. Comparison with a nonlinear theory. McDaniel, R.V., Sharp, K., Brooks, D., McLaughlin, A.C., Winiski, A.P., Cafiso, D., McLaughlin, S. Biophys. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. A glutamine transport gene, glnQ, is required for fibronectin adherence and virulence of group B streptococci. Tamura, G.S., Nittayajarn, A., Schoentag, D.L. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Oligosaccharide preferences of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-I: crystal structures of Met340His mutant of human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-I with a pentasaccharide and trisaccharides of the N-glycan moiety. Ramasamy, V., Ramakrishnan, B., Boeggeman, E., Ratner, D.M., Seeberger, P.H., Qasba, P.K. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. T cell clones with normal or defective O-galactosylation from a patient with permanent mixed-field polyagglutinability. Thurnher, M., Clausen, H., Fierz, W., Lanzavecchia, A., Berger, E.G. Eur. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect on IgG glycosylation of altering beta1, 4-galactosyltransferase-1 activity in B cells. Keusch, J., Lydyard, P.M., Delves, P.J. Glycobiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of biotinylated nucleotide sugars as substrates for glycosyltransferases. Bülter, T., Schumacher, T., Namdjou, D.J., Gutiérrez Gallego, R., Clausen, H., Elling, L. Chembiochem (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Phorbol-ester-induced stable changes in the regulation of DNA synthesis and intracellular pH are accompanied by altered expression of protein kinase C in the monoblastoid cell line U-937. Forsbeck, K., Nilsson, K., Nygren, P., Larsson, R., Gylfe, E., Skoglund, G., Ingelman-Sundberg, M. Int. J. Cancer (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Roles of gastric GATA DNA-binding proteins. Maeda, M., Kubo, K., Nishi, T., Futai, M. J. Exp. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Recent 4-drug users with chronic hepatitis C can be efficiently treated with daily high dose induction therapy using consensus interferon: An open-label pilot study. Witthoeft, T., Fuchs, M., Ludwig, D. World J. Gastroenterol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased frequency of acrocentric chromosome association during colcemid treatment. Abramova, E., Vyguinnyi, S., Mamaeva, S. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. (1993) [Pubmed]
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