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Chemical Compound Review

Panamidin     4-[3-(4-carbamimidoylphenoxy) propoxy]benze...

Synonyms: Propamidin, Propamidina, Propamidine, Propamidinum, DAPP-Br, ...
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Disease relevance of TNT


High impact information on TNT

  • Together, these results suggest that TNF-enhanced tk gene therapy should provide a useful treatment for TNF-alpha-sensitive tumors and perhaps also for TNT-alpha-resistant tumors if vector delivery can be improved to increase the percentage of transduced tumor cells [6].
  • Mean SUV, max SUV, and TNT correlated with mitotic score, MIB-1 score, the French and Japanese grading system (* = 0.550-0.747) [7].
  • Titration of the anti-TNT antibody with a fluorescein-labeled TNT derivative yields a binding constant of (3.9 +/- 1.3) x 10(9) M(-1) [8].
  • ESI FTICR mass spectrometry of smokeless powder, TNT, and Powermite resolves and identifies numerous nonactive ingredients, many of which are recovered in a postblast residue [9].
  • Confirmatory evidence from 18S rRNA gene analysis for in vivo development of propamidine resistance in a temporal series of Acanthamoeba ocular isolates from a patient [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of TNT


Biological context of TNT


Anatomical context of TNT

  • As a result of these data, a kinetic study carried out on propamidine, hexamidine, and octamidine demonstrated that the amoebicidal effects resulted from two events: the diffusion of molecules through the plasma membrane or the double wall of trophozoites or cysts, respectively, and the lethal effects of molecules on amoebic protoplasm [2].
  • Furthermore, we induced TNT expression in the adult mushroom bodies [5].
  • The vasorelaxant effect of Sin 1 on the human radial artery was comparable with that of TNT, but with no tolerance effect [21].
  • Clodronate and propamidine, delivered into macrophages in this way, will kill these cells as a result of intracellular accumulation and irreversible metabolic damage [22].
  • The hypothesis that 4HA was more readily converted to the reactive intermediate than TNT was further supported by the increased levels of covalent adduct formation when [14C]4HA was incubated directly with liver microsomes [23].

Associations of TNT with other chemical compounds


Gene context of TNT

  • In this study, the p58GTA interaction with beta1,4-GT 1 was confirmed using an in vitro assay with the TNT Coupled Reticulocyte Lysate System. An expression vector containing p58GTA was stably transfected into 7721 cells, a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, expression was confirmed by Northern and Western blot analyses [28].
  • Eleven alanytes (TSH, T4, FT4, T3, FT3, T-up, TNT, CK-MB, HCG, CEA and PSA) were tested using a protocol related to the ECCLS guidelines and the Standard Operating Procedures of the manufacturer [29].
  • Ninety-four patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and available snap-frozen tissue were screened for BRCA1 mutations by both PTT (five individual PCR reactions with complete translation of the product in the TNT System (Promega, Madison, WI)) and SSCP (41 individual PCR reactions covering the entire coding sequence) [30].
  • They contained 27-kb plasmids encoding resistance to cadmium acetate, mercuric chloride, propamidine isethionate and ethidium bromide similar to plasmids isolated in MRSA from South East Asia. Molecular typing of these isolates will clarify their relationship to MRSA from South East Asia [31].
  • The combination of collision-induced dissociation (CID) with novel ion/molecule reactions should provide a selective method for the detection of explosives such as TNT, RDX and HMX in mixtures using mass spectrometry [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TNT

  • Our work utilized the Luminex(100) (flow cytometer) to detect TNT in a multiplexed displacement immunoassay format [33].
  • The study resulted in: (i) a highly sensitive and reproducible TNT ELISA (I50 and I20 values of 0.4 +/- 0.09 ppb and 0.12 +/- 0.03 ppb, respectively; n = 12), which is highly specific to TNT; and (ii) successful entrapment of the Abs that bound free analyte from solution [34].
  • We demonstrate a self-assembled reagentless biosensor based on a modular design strategy that functions in the detection of TNT and related explosive compounds [35].
  • Homogeneous immunoassay for detection of TNT and its analogues on a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip [8].
  • Herein, we demonstrate the capabilities of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to detect the chemical vapor signature emanating from buried TNT-based landmines [36].


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  11. Outcome of acanthamoeba keratitis treated with polyhexamethyl biguanide and propamidine. Duguid, I.G., Dart, J.K., Morlet, N., Allan, B.D., Matheson, M., Ficker, L., Tuft, S. Ophthalmology (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Clinical trials update from the European Society of Cardiology heart failure meeting: TNT subgroup analysis, darbepoetin alfa, FERRIC-HF and KW-3902. Coletta, A.P., Tin, L., Loh, P.H., Clark, A.L., Cleland, J.G. Eur. J. Heart Fail. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  15. In vitro amoebicidal activity of propamidine and pentamidine isethionate against Acanthamoeba species and toxicity to corneal tissues. Alizadeh, H., Silvany, R.E., Meyer, D.R., Dougherty, J.M., McCulley, J.P. Cornea (1997) [Pubmed]
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  21. Effect of linsidomine on the human radial artery. Remadi, J.P., Colas, B., Masson, H., Slama, M., Andréjack, M. Clin. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  30. Ovarian cancer BRCA1 mutation detection: Protein truncation test (PTT) outperforms single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP). Geisler, J.P., Hatterman-Zogg, M.A., Rathe, J.A., Lallas, T.A., Kirby, P., Buller, R.E. Hum. Mutat. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Antibacterial resistance and their genetic location in MRSA isolated in Kuwait hospitals, 1994-2004. Udo, E.E., Al-Sweih, N., Mokaddas, E., Johny, M., Dhar, R., Gomaa, H.H., Al-Obaid, I., Rotimi, V.O. BMC Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  33. TNT Detection Using Multiplexed Liquid Array Displacement Immunoassays. Anderson, G.P., Moreira, S.C., Charles, P.T., Medintz, I.L., Goldman, E.R., Zeinali, M., Taitt, C.R. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Immunochemical approaches for purification and detection of TNT traces by antibodies entrapped in a sol-gel matrix. Altstein, M., Bronshtein, A., Glattstein, B., Zeichner, A., Tamiri, T., Almog, J. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Self-assembled TNT biosensor based on modular multifunctional surface-tethered components. Medintz, I.L., Goldman, E.R., Lassman, M.E., Hayhurst, A., Kusterbeck, A.W., Deschamps, J.R. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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