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Gene Review

ACAA1  -  acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal, ACAA, Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, Beta-ketothiolase, PTHIO, ...
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Disease relevance of ACAA1

  • It appears that there is an association of increased cytosol ACAA and PSA with prostate cancer [1].
  • Comparison of the effects of 6- thio- and 6-methylthiopurine ribonucleoside cyclic monophosphates withtheir corresponding nucleosides on the growth of rat hepatoma cells [2].
  • The cleavage reaction catalyzed by the trans -acting genomic ribozyme of human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was analyzed with a 13mer substrate (R13) and thio-substituted [SR13(Rp) and SR13(Sp)] substrates under single-turnover conditions [3].
  • All new N1-substituted uracils were tested for activity against HIV-1, and the thio analogues were found extremely potent [4].
  • Derivatives from ddThd in which the substituent group was linked to the 3'-carbon atom via a thio, sulfonyl, or oxygen bridge were far less inhibitory to HIV than was AzddThd [5].

High impact information on ACAA1


Chemical compound and disease context of ACAA1

  • Selective interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase nonnucleoside inhibitor efavirenz and its thio-substituted analog with different enzyme-substrate complexes [11].
  • The three genes that are considered to be essential in the PHB biosynthetic pathway, phbA (beta-ketothiolase), phbB (acetoacetyl coenzyme A reductase), and phbC (PHB synthase), were identified in Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7, cloned, and sequenced [12].
  • Between 7 September 1994 and 7 June 1999 48 patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were conditioned with thiotepa (THIO) 15 mg/kg, cyclophosphamide (CY) 150 mg/kg and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) [13].
  • When expressed in Escherichia coli four main components (denoted hPAH I-IV) of approximately 50 kDa were observed on long-term induction at 28-37 degrees C with isopropyl thio-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG), differing in pI by about 0.1 pH unit [14].
  • Thio- and selenoxanthylium dyes were prepared by the addition of 2-lithiothiophene, 4-N,N-dimethylaminophenylmagnesium bromide, and 1-naphthylmagnesium bromide to the appropriate 2,7-bis-N,N-dimethylaminochalcogenoxanthen-9-one, followed by dehydration and ion exchange to the chloride salts [15].

Biological context of ACAA1


Anatomical context of ACAA1

  • The chromosomal localisation of the human gene coding for peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (ACAA) was determined by human-hamster somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridisation, using cDNA and genomic probes, respectively [17].
  • However, when benign and malignant tissue from the same prostate were available for comparison, both PSA (N = 17) and ACAA (N = 16) showed significant elevations in the cytosol of the malignant tissue (p less than 0.002 and p less than 0.03, respectively) [1].
  • Immunofluorescent staining for peroxisomal beta-ketothiolase showed the immunoreactivity to be localized in subcellular particles in fibroblasts from both Zellweger syndrome and RCDP patients, even though the former lack normal peroxisomes [20].
  • Blockage of foot regeneration was also observed using antisense thio-oligo nucleotides to HMMP introduced into the endoderm of the basal pole using a localized electroporation technique [21].
  • CDK1 selective thio- and oxoflavopiridol analogues inhibit the colony-forming ability of multiple human tumor cell lines and possess a unique antiproliferative profile in comparison to flavopiridol [22].

Associations of ACAA1 with chemical compounds

  • At the time when they were described, the abnormalities in this patient, which included accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids and the bile-acid intermediate trihydroxycholestanoic acid, were believed to be the logical consequence of a deficiency of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzyme THIO [23].
  • The relative ability of oxo, thio, and seleno analogs to displace nicotine was the same as their relative ability to block axonal conduction and synaptic transmission [24].
  • Another ether lipid, the thio compound 1-O-hexadecylmercapto-2-methoxymethyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine , enhanced peroxidation in the presence of cofactors with kinetics corresponding to those of cytotoxicity [25].
  • ACAA is a large molecular weight glycoprotein (Mr 790,000 by size chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B) that migrates in the alpha 1 region upon electrophoresis and is eluted from a DEAE-cellulose column at a 0.1 M NaCl concentration [26].
  • ATM can form thio-gold adducts with cysteine residues on target proteins [27].

Other interactions of ACAA1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACAA1


  1. Evaluation of a new tumor marker for localized prostate cancer. Culkin, D.J., Gelder, F.B., Vick, S.R., Parra, B.L., Mata, J.A., Venable, D.D., Zitman, R.A. Prostate (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of the effects of 6- thio- and 6-methylthiopurine ribonucleoside cyclic monophosphates withtheir corresponding nucleosides on the growth of rat hepatoma cells. Koontz, J.W., Wicks, W.D. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of the cleavage reaction of a trans-acting human hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. Fauzi, H., Kawakami, J., Nishikawa, F., Nishikawa, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Synthesis and potent anti-HIV-1 activity of novel 6-benzyluracil analogues of 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine. Danel, K., Larsen, E., Pedersen, E.B., Vestergaard, B.F., Nielsen, C. J. Med. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. 3'-substituted 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside analogues as potential anti-HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) agents. Herdewijn, P., Balzarini, J., De Clercq, E., Pauwels, R., Baba, M., Broder, S., Vanderhaeghe, H. J. Med. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction of fetal hemoglobin in the presence of increased 3-hydroxybutyric acid associated with beta-ketothiolase deficiency. Galanello, R., Cao, A., Olivieri, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. Deficiency of 3-oxoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase in peroxisomes and impaired processing of the enzyme. Heikoop, J.C., van Roermund, C.W., Just, W.W., Ofman, R., Schutgens, R.B., Heymans, H.S., Wanders, R.J., Tager, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Bile acid profiles in peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase deficiency. Clayton, P.T., Patel, E., Lawson, A.M., Carruthers, R.A., Collins, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency. Watkins, P.A., Chen, W.W., Harris, C.J., Hoefler, G., Hoefler, S., Blake, D.C., Balfe, A., Kelley, R.I., Moser, A.B., Beard, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Chemistry of metal thio- and selenocarboxylates: precursors for metal sulfide/selenide materials, thin films, and nanocrystals. Vittal, J.J., Ng, M.T. Acc. Chem. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Selective interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase nonnucleoside inhibitor efavirenz and its thio-substituted analog with different enzyme-substrate complexes. Maga, G., Ubiali, D., Salvetti, R., Pregnolato, M., Spadari, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification and isolation of genes involved in poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis in Azospirillum brasilense and characterization of a phbC mutant. Kadouri, D., Burdman, S., Jurkevitch, E., Okon, Y. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Alternative donor transplants for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies, conditioned with thiotepa, cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin. Lamparelli, T., van Lint, M.T., Gualandi, F., Raiola, A.M., Barbanti, M., Sacchi, N., Ficai, G., Ghinatti, C., Bregante, S., Berisso, G., Dominietto, A., Di Grazia, C., Bruno, B., Sessarego, M., Casarino, L., Verdiani, S., Bacigalupo, A. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Microheterogeneity of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase as a result of nonenzymatic deamidations of labile amide containing amino acids. Effects on catalytic and stability properties. Solstad, T., Flatmark, T. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Chalcogenoxanthylium photosensitizers for the photodynamic purging of blood-borne viral and bacterial pathogens. Wagner, S.J., Skripchenko, A., Donnelly, D.J., Ramaswamy, K., Detty, M.R. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Nucleotide sequence of human peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase. Bout, A., Teunissen, Y., Hashimoto, T., Benne, R., Tager, J.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Refined localization of human peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (ACAA) to 3p22. Ottone, F., Raimondi, E., Rocchi, M., Giussani, F., Malcovati, M., Tenchini, M.L. Hum. Hered. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of the gene encoding human peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (ACAA). No large DNA rearrangement in a thiolase-deficient patient. Bout, A., Franse, M.M., Collins, J., Blonden, L., Tager, J.M., Benne, R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Phosphoprotein inhibition of calcium-stimulated exocytosis in sea urchin eggs. Whalley, T., Crossley, I., Whitaker, M. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Aberrant subcellular localization of peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in the Zellweger syndrome and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. Balfe, A., Hoefler, G., Chen, W.W., Watkins, P.A. Pediatr. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. A novel hydra matrix metalloproteinase (HMMP) functions in extracellular matrix degradation, morphogenesis and the maintenance of differentiated cells in the foot process. Leontovich, A.A., Zhang, J., Shimokawa, K., Nagase, H., Sarras, M.P. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Thio- and oxoflavopiridols, cyclin-dependent kinase 1-selective inhibitors: synthesis and biological effects. Kim, K.S., Sack, J.S., Tokarski, J.S., Qian, L., Chao, S.T., Leith, L., Kelly, Y.F., Misra, R.N., Hunt, J.T., Kimball, S.D., Humphreys, W.G., Wautlet, B.S., Mulheron, J.G., Webster, K.R. J. Med. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Reinvestigation of peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase deficiency: identification of the true defect at the level of d-bifunctional protein. Ferdinandusse, S., van Grunsven, E.G., Oostheim, W., Denis, S., Hogenhout, E.M., IJlst, L., van Roermund, C.W., Waterham, H.R., Goldfischer, S., Wanders, R.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Interaction of cholinergic ligands and local anesthetics with plasma membrane fragments from lobster axon. Marquis, J.K., Hilt, D.C., Papadeas, V.A., Mautner, H.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Membrane peroxidative damage enhancement by the ether lipid class of antineoplastic agents. Wagner, B.A., Buettner, G.R., Burns, C.P. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Purification, partial characterization, and clinical evaluation of an adenocarcinoma-associated antigen. Pinto, V.B., Gelder, F.B., Morris, D.M. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Aurothiomalate Inhibits Transformed Growth by Targeting the PB1 Domain of Protein Kinase C{iota}. Erdogan, E., Lamark, T., Stallings-Mann, M., Lee Jamieson, n.u.l.l., Pellechia, M., Thompson, E.A., Johansen, T., Fields, A.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Human peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase deficiency. Schram, A.W., Goldfischer, S., van Roermund, C.W., Brouwer-Kelder, E.M., Collins, J., Hashimoto, T., Heymans, H.S., van den Bosch, H., Schutgens, R.B., Tager, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Assignment of the gene coding for human peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (ACAA) to chromosome region 3p22----p23. Bout, A., Hoovers, J.M., Bakker, E., Mannens, M.M., Geurts van Kessel, A., Westerveld, A., Tager, J.M., Benne, R. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Mechanism of RNase T1: concerted triester-like phosphoryl transfer via a catalytic three-centered hydrogen bond. Loverix, S., Winqvist, A., Strömberg, R., Steyaert, J. Chem. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Use of ATP, dATP and their alpha-thio derivatives to study DNA ligase adenylation. Montecucco, A., Lestingi, M., Pedrali-Noy, G., Spadari, S., Ciarrocchi, G. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
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