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Chemical Compound Review

SELENIUM     selenium

Synonyms: selenio, Vandex, Selen, Electronic E-2, Gray selenium, ...
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Disease relevance of selenium


Psychiatry related information on selenium

  • On the basis of inductively coupled plasma/mass spectroscopic analyses, corroborated by operant behaviour and locomotor activity investigations, an orally-active phenylaminoalkyl selenide with restricted CNS permeability was successfully developed [6].
  • 1. Selenium status was investigated in patients with chronic renal failure, with special regard to its relations to the dialysis treatments, dietary habits and clinical signs of atherosclerosis [7].
  • To determine the uptake capacity and long-term stability, hydrocalumite solid solutions between chromate/selenate and hydroxyl were synthesized over a reaction time of more than one year [8].

High impact information on selenium

  • This Account focuses on recent developments of the chemistry of metal thio- and selenocarboxylates in our laboratory and potential use of some of these compounds as single-source precursors for making metal sulfide and selenide bulk materials, thin films, and nanoparticles [9].
  • A labile selenium donor compound monoselenophosphate is synthesized from selenide and ATP by selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) [10].
  • E-Se rhodanese was stable in the presence of excess GSH at neutral pH at 37 degrees C. E-Se rhodanese could effectively replace the high concentrations of selenide normally used in the selenophosphate synthetase in vitro assay in which the selenium-dependent hydrolysis of ATP is measured [11].
  • The dependence of reaction velocity on ATP concentration shows sigmoidal kinetics, whereas dependence on selenide concentration obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics indicating a Km value of 46 microM for selenide [5].
  • We have reconstituted apo-aconitase with iron and selenide to obtain Fe4Se4 aconitase [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of selenium


Biological context of selenium


Anatomical context of selenium


Associations of selenium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of selenium


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of selenium


  1. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Clark, L.C., Combs, G.F., Turnbull, B.W., Slate, E.H., Chalker, D.K., Chow, J., Davis, L.S., Glover, R.A., Graham, G.F., Gross, E.G., Krongrad, A., Lesher, J.L., Park, H.K., Sanders, B.B., Smith, C.L., Taylor, J.R. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Prospective study of serum micronutrients and ovarian cancer. Helzlsouer, K.J., Alberg, A.J., Norkus, E.P., Morris, J.S., Hoffman, S.C., Comstock, G.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Derepression of ATP sulfurylase by the sulfate analogs molybdate and selenate in cultured tobacco cells. Reuveny, Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Isotope exchange studies on the Escherichia coli selenophosphate synthetase mechanism. Walker, H., Ferretti, J.A., Stadtman, T.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Synthesis of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-selenouridine in tRNAs: 31P NMR studies show the labile selenium donor synthesized by the selD gene product contains selenium bonded to phosphorus. Veres, Z., Tsai, L., Scholz, T.D., Politino, M., Balaban, R.S., Stadtman, T.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Selenium-based antihypertensives. Rationale and potential. May, S.W., Pollock, S.H. Drugs (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Low platelet glutathione peroxidase activity and serum selenium concentration in patients with chronic renal failure: relations to dialysis treatments, diet and cardiovascular complications. Girelli, D., Olivieri, O., Stanzial, A.M., Azzini, M., Lupo, A., Bernich, P., Menini, C., Gammaro, L., Corrocher, R. Clin. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Chromate and selenate hydrocalumite solid solutions and their applications in waste treatment. Zhang, M., Reardon, E.J. Sci. China, C, Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Chemistry of metal thio- and selenocarboxylates: precursors for metal sulfide/selenide materials, thin films, and nanocrystals. Vittal, J.J., Ng, M.T. Acc. Chem. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Selenophosphate synthetase genes from lung adenocarcinoma cells: Sps1 for recycling L-selenocysteine and Sps2 for selenite assimilation. Tamura, T., Yamamoto, S., Takahata, M., Sakaguchi, H., Tanaka, H., Stadtman, T.C., Inagaki, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Formation of a selenium-substituted rhodanese by reaction with selenite and glutathione: possible role of a protein perselenide in a selenium delivery system. Ogasawara, Y., Lacourciere, G., Stadtman, T.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Mössbauer study of the inactive Fe3S4 and Fe3Se4 and the active Fe4Se4 forms of beef heart aconitase. Surerus, K.K., Kennedy, M.C., Beinert, H., Münck, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Extracellular Production of Hydrogen Selenide Accounts for Thiol-assisted Toxicity of Selenite against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tarze, A., Dauplais, M., Grigoras, I., Lazard, M., Ha-Duong, N.T., Barbier, F., Blanquet, S., Plateau, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Letter: Selenium protection against mercury toxicity. Binding of methylmercury by the selenohydryl-containing ligand. Sugiura, Y., Hojo, Y., Tamai, Y., Tanaka, H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Oral selenate improves glucose homeostasis and partly reverses abnormal expression of liver glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes in diabetic rats. Becker, D.J., Reul, B., Ozcelikay, A.T., Buchet, J.P., Henquin, J.C., Brichard, S.M. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Selenomethionine induced transcriptional programs in human prostate cancer cells. Zhao, H., Brooks, J.D. J. Urol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Cancer chemoprevention by garlic and garlic-containing sulfur and selenium compounds. El-Bayoumy, K., Sinha, R., Pinto, J.T., Rivlin, R.S. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Selenite and selenate inhibit human lymphocyte growth via different mechanisms. Spyrou, G., Björnstedt, M., Skog, S., Holmgren, A. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Caspases as key executors of methyl selenium-induced apoptosis (anoikis) of DU-145 prostate cancer cells. Jiang, C., Wang, Z., Ganther, H., Lu, J. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. The insulin-like effects of selenate in rat adipocytes. Ezaki, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. The class 2 selenophosphate synthetase gene of Drosophila contains a functional mammalian-type SECIS. Hirosawa-Takamori, M., Jäckle, H., Vorbrüggen, G. EMBO Rep. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Purification and characterization of the selenate reductase from Thauera selenatis. Schröder, I., Rech, S., Krafft, T., Macy, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Selenate fortification improves selenium status of term infants fed soy formula. Smith, A.M., Chen, L.W., Thomas, M.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status. Broome, C.S., McArdle, F., Kyle, J.A., Andrews, F., Lowe, N.M., Hart, C.A., Arthur, J.R., Jackson, M.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Zinc, vanadate and selenate inhibit the tri-iodothyronine-induced expression of fatty acid synthase and malic enzyme in chick-embryo hepatocytes in culture. Zhu, Y., Goodridge, A.G., Stapleton, S.R. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Fetal mouse selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2): characterization of the cysteine mutant form overproduced in a baculovirus-insect cell system. Kim, I.Y., Guimarães, M.J., Zlotnik, A., Bazan, J.F., Stadtman, T.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. S. cerevisiae and sulfur: a unique way to deal with the environment. Scheibel, T., Bell, S., Walke, S. FASEB J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization. Dietrich, C.P., Nader, H.B., Buonassisi, V., Colburn, P. FASEB J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. SelD homolog from Drosophila lacking selenide-dependent monoselenophosphate synthetase activity. Persson, B.C., Böck, A., Jäckle, H., Vorbrüggen, G. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Two distinct high-affinity sulfate transporters with different inducibilities mediate uptake of sulfate in Arabidopsis roots. Yoshimoto, N., Takahashi, H., Smith, F.W., Yamaya, T., Saito, K. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Selenium's effects on MMP-2 and TIMP-1 secretion by human trabecular meshwork cells. Conley, S.M., Bruhn, R.L., Morgan, P.V., Stamer, W.D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Selenium and the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. Björnstedt, M., Kumar, S., Björkhem, L., Spyrou, G., Holmgren, A. Biomed. Environ. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Semi-met oxidation level of chalcogenide derivatives of methemerythrin. Mössbauer and EPR studies. Kurtz, D.M., Sage, J.T., Hendrich, M., Debrunner, P.G., Lukat, G.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Selenomethionine induction of DNA repair response in human fibroblasts. Seo, Y.R., Sweeney, C., Smith, M.L. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular analysis of dimethyl sulphide dehydrogenase from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum: its place in the dimethyl sulphoxide reductase family of microbial molybdopterin-containing enzymes. McDevitt, C.A., Hugenholtz, P., Hanson, G.R., McEwan, A.G. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Selenate fortification of infant formulas improves the selenium status of preterm infants. Tyrala, E.E., Borschel, M.W., Jacobs, J.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
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