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Gene Review

EPCAM  -  epithelial cell adhesion molecule

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 17-1A, 323/A3, Adenocarcinoma-associated antigen, CD326, CO-17A, ...
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Disease relevance of TACSTD1


Psychiatry related information on TACSTD1


High impact information on TACSTD1


Chemical compound and disease context of TACSTD1


Biological context of TACSTD1

  • The two genes with the highest inverse association with invasion, TACSTD1 and CLDN3, are involved with cell adhesion and cell-cell interactions, respectively [18].
  • At the amino acid sequence level, GA733-2 was found to be greater than 99% identical to the previously described KSA antigen defined by monoclonal antibody KS1/4 [1].
  • Analysis of glycosylation sites showed that GA733-2 antigen contained N-linked carbohydrate but that no O-linked carbohydrate groups were detected [19].
  • Because oligomerization of some CAMs regulates cell adhesion and signal transduction, the correlation between GA733 oligomeric state and cell-cell adhesion was investigated [20].
  • The loss of p53 was shown to induce loss of DNA methylation in the TROP1 gene, a human cancer-expressed locus that undergoes amplification when hypomethylated [21].

Anatomical context of TACSTD1


Associations of TACSTD1 with chemical compounds

  • The GA733-2 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein highly expressed on most human gastrointestinal carcinoma and at a lower level on most normal epithelia [19].
  • Immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from which primary OSPC cultures were derived further confirmed differential expression of CD24 and TROP-1/Ep-CAM markers on OSPC vs. NOVA [24].
  • Seventeen contiguous NH2-terminal amino acids were identified and coincided exactly with residues 82-98 of the GA733-2 protein cloned by Szala et al [25].
  • RESULTS: EpCAM is consistently expressed in the distal nephron on normal renal epithelium [26].
  • Pretreatment of human EGP with pronase, trypsin, 2-ME, or heating did not interfere with the ability of human EGP to inhibit the binding of human erythrocytes to porcine Kupffer cells [27].
  • Silenced Ep-CAM gene in cancer cells was enriched for hypermethylated histone 3 lysine 9 [28].

Regulatory relationships of TACSTD1


Other interactions of TACSTD1

  • The epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) is a ligand for the leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor (LAIR) [8].
  • Using a gene-amplification assay in vivo, we demonstrate that the loss of p53 leads to a demethylation-dependent TROP1 gene amplification [21].
  • RESULTS: Preclinical and initial clinical studies with monoclonal antibodies CO17-1A, BW494/32 and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been conducted, and various targets suitable for immunotherapy have been identified involving new molecular and gene technology [32].
  • RESULTS: The presence of an inflammatory reaction surrounding the tumor (P = .07), eosinophilic infiltration (P = .16), positive immunostaining for Rb (P = .02), negative immunostaining for Ep-CAM (P = .13), and amplification of CCND1 and EMS1 (P = .05) correlated with nodal metastasis [33].
  • PVA and SFTPB are particularly powerful in tumors of squamous and adenocarcinoma histologies, respectively, whereas TACSTD1 is a good general marker for NSCLC metastasis [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TACSTD1


  1. Molecular cloning of cDNA for the carcinoma-associated antigen GA733-2. Szala, S., Froehlich, M., Scollon, M., Kasai, Y., Steplewski, Z., Koprowski, H., Linnenbach, A.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Overexpression of the cell adhesion molecules DDR1, Claudin 3, and Ep-CAM in metaplastic ovarian epithelium and ovarian cancer. Heinzelmann-Schwarz, V.A., Gardiner-Garden, M., Henshall, S.M., Scurry, J., Scolyer, R.A., Davies, M.J., Heinzelmann, M., Kalish, L.H., Bali, A., Kench, J.G., Edwards, L.S., Vanden Bergh, P.M., Hacker, N.F., Sutherland, R.L., O'Brien, P.M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Correlation of COX-2 and Ep-CAM overexpression in human invasive breast cancer and its impact on survival. Spizzo, G., Gastl, G., Wolf, D., Gunsilius, E., Steurer, M., Fong, D., Amberger, A., Margreiter, R., Obrist, P. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of tumor growth by recombinant vaccinia virus expressing GA733/CO17-1A/EpCAM/KSA/KS1-4 antigen in mice. Zaloudik, J., Li, W., Jacob, L., Kieny, M.P., Somasundaram, R., Acres, B., Song, H., Zhang, T., Li, J., Herlyn, D. Cancer Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Prognostic effect of epithelial cell adhesion molecule overexpression in untreated node-negative breast cancer. Schmidt, M., Hasenclever, D., Schaeffer, M., Boehm, D., Cotarelo, C., Steiner, E., Lebrecht, A., Siggelkow, W., Weikel, W., Schiffer-Petry, I., Gebhard, S., Pilch, H., Gehrmann, M., Lehr, H.A., Koelbl, H., Hengstler, J.G., Schuler, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. EpCAM, a new marker for cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma. Terris, B., Cavard, C., Perret, C. J. Hepatol. (2010) [Pubmed]
  7. Hallucinogenic plant poisoning in children. Al-Shaikh, A.M., Sablay, Z.M. Saudi medical journal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) is a ligand for the leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor (LAIR). Meyaard, L., van der Vuurst de Vries, A.R., de Ruiter, T., Lanier, L.L., Phillips, J.H., Clevers, H. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Colorectal carcinoma invasion inhibition by CO17-1A/GA733 antigen and its murine homologue. Basak, S., Speicher, D., Eck, S., Wunner, W., Maul, G., Simmons, M.S., Herlyn, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Phase I trial of multiple large doses of murine monoclonal antibody CO17-1A. I. Clinical aspects. LoBuglio, A.F., Saleh, M.N., Lee, J., Khazaeli, M.B., Carrano, R., Holden, H., Wheeler, R.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Phase I trial of multiple large doses of murine monoclonal antibody CO17-1A. II. Pharmacokinetics and immune response. Khazaeli, M.B., Saleh, M.N., Wheeler, R.H., Huster, W.J., Holden, H., Carrano, R., LoBuglio, A.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Ep-CAM overexpression in breast cancer as a predictor of survival. Gastl, G., Spizzo, G., Obrist, P., Dünser, M., Mikuz, G. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA methylation prevents the amplification of TROP1, a tumor-associated cell surface antigen gene. Alberti, S., Nutini, M., Herzenberg, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Radioimmunotherapy of human colorectal carcinoma xenografts using 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibody CO17-1A prepared by two bifunctional chelate techniques. Lee, Y.C., Washburn, L.C., Sun, T.T., Byrd, B.L., Crook, J.E., Holloway, E.C., Steplewski, Z. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Marked effects of sustained low growth hormone (GH) levels on day-to-day fuel metabolism: studies in GH-deficient patients and healthy untreated subjects. Jørgensen, J.O., Møller, J., Alberti, K.G., Schmitz, O., Christiansen, J.S., Orskov, H., Moller, N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Determination of tumor-related factors of influence on the uptake of the monoclonal antibody 323/A3 in experimental human ovarian cancer. Kievit, E., Pinedo, H.M., Schlüper, H.M., Haisma, H.J., Boven, E. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Efficient tumor cell lysis by autologous, tumor-resident T lymphocytes in primary ovarian cancer samples by an EP-CAM-/CD3-bispecific antibody. Wimberger, P., Xiang, W., Mayr, D., Diebold, J., Dreier, T., Baeuerle, P.A., Kimmig, R. Int. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of a transcriptional profile associated with in vitro invasion in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Lader, A.S., Ramoni, M.F., Zetter, B.R., Kohane, I.S., Kwiatkowski, D.J. Cancer Biol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Determination of disulfide bond assignments and N-glycosylation sites of the human gastrointestinal carcinoma antigen GA733-2 (CO17-1A, EGP, KS1-4, KSA, and Ep-CAM). Chong, J.M., Speicher, D.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Oligomeric state of the colon carcinoma-associated glycoprotein GA733-2 (Ep-CAM/EGP40) and its role in GA733-mediated homotypic cell-cell adhesion. Trebak, M., Begg, G.E., Chong, J.M., Kanazireva, E.V., Herlyn, D., Speicher, D.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Mutations of TP53 induce loss of DNA methylation and amplification of the TROP1 gene. Nasr, A.F., Nutini, M., Palombo, B., Guerra, E., Alberti, S. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Epithelial glycoprotein is a member of a family of epithelial cell surface antigens homologous to nidogen, a matrix adhesion protein. Simon, B., Podolsky, D.K., Moldenhauer, G., Isselbacher, K.J., Gattoni-Celli, S., Brand, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. A murine cDNA encodes a pan-epithelial glycoprotein that is also expressed on plasma cells. Bergsagel, P.L., Victor-Kobrin, C., Timblin, C.R., Trepel, J., Kuehl, W.M. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Gene expression profiles in primary ovarian serous papillary tumors and normal ovarian epithelium: identification of candidate molecular markers for ovarian cancer diagnosis and therapy. Santin, A.D., Zhan, F., Bellone, S., Palmieri, M., Cane, S., Bignotti, E., Anfossi, S., Gokden, M., Dunn, D., Roman, J.J., O'Brien, T.J., Tian, E., Cannon, M.J., Shaughnessy, J., Pecorelli, S. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Isolation, partial characterization, and molecular cloning of a human colon adenocarcinoma cell-surface glycoprotein recognized by the C215 mouse monoclonal antibody. Björk, P., Jönsson, U., Svedberg, H., Larsson, K., Lind, P., Dillner, J., Hedlund, G., Dohlsten, M., Kalland, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (KSA) expression: pathobiology and its role as an independent predictor of survival in renal cell carcinoma. Seligson, D.B., Pantuck, A.J., Liu, X., Huang, Y., Horvath, S., Bui, M.H., Han, K.R., Correa, A.J., Eeva, M., Tze, S., Belldegrun, A.S., Figlin, R.A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Carbohydrates borne on human glycophorin A are recognized by porcine Kupffer cells. Burlak, C., Twining, L.M., Rees, M.A. Transplantation (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. DNA methylation and histone modification regulate silencing of epithelial cell adhesion molecule for tumor invasion and progression. Tai, K.Y., Shiah, S.G., Shieh, Y.S., Kao, Y.R., Chi, C.Y., Huang, E., Lee, H.S., Chang, L.C., Yang, P.C., Wu, C.W. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Human colorectal cancer (CRC) antigen CO17-1A/GA733 encoded by adenovirus inhibits growth of established CRC cells in mice. Li, W., Berencsi, K., Basak, S., Somasundaram, R., Ricciardi, R.P., Gönczöl, E., Zaloudik, J., Linnenbach, A., Maruyama, H., Miniou, P., Herlyn, D. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Monoclonal antibody 9C4 recognizes epithelial cellular adhesion molecule, a cell surface antigen expressed in early steps of erythropoiesis. Lammers, R., Giesert, C., Grünebach, F., Marxer, A., Vogel, W., Bühring, H.J. Exp. Hematol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. The tumour-associated antigen EpCAM upregulates the fatty acid binding protein E-FABP. Münz, M., Zeidler, R., Gires, O. Cancer Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer - current status and future. Staib, L., Link, K.H., Beger, H.G. Langenbeck's archives of surgery / Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Markers for assessment of nodal metastasis in laryngeal carcinoma. Takes, R.P., Baatenburg de Jong, R.J., Schuuring, E., Hermans, J., Vis, A.A., Litvinov, S.V., van Krieken, J.H. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. A combination of molecular markers accurately detects lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Xi, L., Coello, M.C., Litle, V.R., Raja, S., Gooding, W.E., Yousem, S.A., El-Hefnawy, T., Landreneau, R.J., Luketich, J.D., Godfrey, T.E. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human adenocarcinoma/epithelial cell surface antigen complementary DNA. Strnad, J., Hamilton, A.E., Beavers, L.S., Gamboa, G.C., Apelgren, L.D., Taber, L.D., Sportsman, J.R., Bumol, T.F., Sharp, J.D., Gadski, R.A. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
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