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Gene Review

AOC2  -  amine oxidase, copper containing 2 (retina...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DAO2, RAO, Retina-specific copper amine oxidase, SSAO, Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase
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Disease relevance of AOC2


High impact information on AOC2

  • The degree of inward motion at mid-ejection was examined for seven segments on the silhouettes of left ventriculograms taken in the 30 degrees RAO projection in patients with normal coronary arteries [6].
  • The RAO was in the 30 degree projection, with the silhouette of the left ventricle sliced into 90 regions; changes in left ventricular volume, pressure and anterior wall thickness during the full cardiac cycle, together with dp/dt were demonstrated [7].
  • Angiographic LV wall thickness and muscle mass were determined according to the technique of Rackley in both, right (RAO) and left (LAO) anterior oblique projections, whereas echocardiographic wall thickness was measured just below the mitral valve orthogonal to the posterior wall (= LAO equivalent) [8].
  • Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured in 28 patients by 30 degrees RAO first-pass imaging and by "best septal view" LAO planar equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography on a conventional small field of view Anger camera [9].
  • Thallium-201 imaging using SPECT is being done with 180 degrees (RAO to LPO) data collection in some centers with single-gamma camera systems [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of AOC2

  • Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined by the 95th percentile of control plasma homocysteine levels as 15.8 micromol/l. Twenty (19.1%) patients with RAO exceeded this level and were therefore classified as hyperhomocysteinemic compared with 5 (4.8%) control subjects (P =.003) [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS:: Elevated glutamate levels in aqueous humor may indicate diffusion of vitreous glutamate released from the damaged retina due to acute retinal ischemia in RAO [12].

Biological context of AOC2


Anatomical context of AOC2


Associations of AOC2 with chemical compounds

  • Tc-99m DTPA was injected into an antecubital vein, with data acquisition in the 30 degrees RAO projection by a gamma scintillation camera interfaced to a computer [19].
  • Therefore the efficacy of fixed imaging planes (transverse, coronal, sagittal, 30-degree RAO equivalent, and 60-degree LAO equivalent) in imaging coronary arteries was compared to that of oblique planes defined by the operator on a previously obtained image [20].
  • RESULTS: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with RAO compared with control subjects (12.2 +/- 4.8 micromol/l vs 10.3 +/- 3.4 micromol/l; P =.003) [11].
  • An increase in the extracellular glutamate level may play an important role in ischemic retinal damage in RAO [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AOC2

  • Gamma camera acquisitions were made in the 30 degree RAO projection using a 20 mCi I.V. bolus of 99mTc-pertechnetate [21].
  • Allowance for spatial and temporal variations in background is therefore important when first-pass radionuclide angiography is performed in the RAO view [22].
  • The aim of this study was to apply the comet assay to equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and identify two conditions in which we hypothesized that oxidative DNA damage would be increased in PBMCs: aging and equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, a condition similar to human asthma) [23].
  • Biplane 30-degree RAO and 60-degree LAO RV selective cineangiography was performed in 21 patients with significant ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia in 14, salvos in three, and complex PVCs in seven) and a high presumption of arrhythmogenic RV dysplasia (ARVD), and in a control group of 10 presumed normal individuals [24].
  • Twenty four hours before heart catheterization, cross-sectional echocardiograms were recorded in the apical RAO-equivalent view and high quality echocardiograms were obtained in 71/80 patients (89%) [25].


  1. Human retina-specific amine oxidase: genomic structure of the gene (AOC2), alternatively spliced variant, and mRNA expression in retina. Imamura, Y., Noda, S., Mashima, Y., Kudoh, J., Oguchi, Y., Shimizu, N. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Assessment of left ventricular function in severe aortic regurgitation. Johnson, A.D., Alpert, J.S., Francis, G.S., Vieweg, V.R., Ockene, I., Hagan, A.D. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Noninvasive quantitation of myocardial infarction with technetium 99m pyrophosphate. Botvinick, E.H., Shames, D., Lappin, H., Tyberg, J.V., Townsend, R., Parmley, W.W. Circulation (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of cyclic AMP on growth and differentiation of rat retinoblastoma-like tumor cells in vitro. Nishida, T., Mukai, N., Solish, S.P., Pomeroy, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Ocular manifestations of carotid artery atheroma. Kirshner, R.L., Green, R.M., Searl, S.S., DeWeese, J.A. J. Vasc. Surg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion at mid-ejection in patients with coronary heart disease. Leighton, R.F., Pollack, M.E., Welch, T.G. Circulation (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Reversal of ischaemic systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction by successful coronary angioplasty in patients with non-Q wave anterior myocardial infarction. Witkowski, A., Ruzyłło, W., Górecka, B., Chmielak, Z., Jodkowski, J., Dabrowski, M., Woroszylska, M., Debski, A., Demkow, M., Ciszewski, A. Eur. Heart J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Determination of left ventricular systolic wall thickness by digital subtraction angiography. Jakob, M., Hess, O.M., Jenni, R., Heywood, J.T., Grimm, J., Krayenbuehl, H.P. Eur. Heart J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. First-pass ventricular ejection fraction using a single-crystal nuclear camera. Nichols, K., DePuey, E.G., Gooneratne, N., Salensky, H., Friedman, M., Cochoff, S. J. Nucl. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparison of 180 degrees and 360 degrees data collection in thallium-20 1 imaging using single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT): concise communication. Coleman, R.E., Jaszczak, R.J., Cobb, F.R. J. Nucl. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation in patients with retinal artery occlusion. Weger, M., Stanger, O., Deutschmann, H., Leitner, F.J., Renner, W., Schmut, O., Semmelrock, J., Haas, A. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Glutamate levels in aqueous humor of patients with retinal artery occlusion. Wakabayashi, Y., Yagihashi, T., Kezuka, J., Muramatsu, D., Usui, M., Iwasaki, T. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of AOC2 gene encoding a copper-binding amine oxidase expressed specifically in retina. Zhang, Q., Mashima, Y., Noda, S., Imamura, Y., Kudoh, J., Shimizu, N., Nishiyama, T., Umeda, S., Oguchi, Y., Tanaka, Y., Iwata, T. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Human retina-specific amine oxidase (RAO): cDNA cloning, tissue expression, and chromosomal mapping. Imamura, Y., Kubota, R., Wang, Y., Asakawa, S., Kudoh, J., Mashima, Y., Oguchi, Y., Shimizu, N. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Quantitative axial oblique contrast left ventriculography: validation of the method by demonstrating improved visualization of regional wall motion and mitral valve function with accurate volume determinations. Rogers, W.J., Smith, L.R., Bream, P.R., Elliott, L.P., Rackley, C.E., Russell, R.O. Am. Heart J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Thrombophilia as a cause for central and branch retinal artery occlusion in patients without an apparent embolic source. Salomon, O., Huna-Baron, R., Moisseiev, J., Rosenberg, N., Rubovitz, A., Steinberg, D.M., Davidson, J., Sela, B.A., Seligsohn, U. Eye (London, England) (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Relation between the AH interval and the ablation site in patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. Geller, J.C., Biblo, L.A., Carlson, M.D. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Microemboli are not a prerequisite in retinal artery occlusive diseases. Haase, C.G., Büchner, T. Eye (London, England) (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Left-ventricular ejection fraction and segmental wall motion by peripheral first-pass radionuclide angiography. Hecht, H.S., Mirell, S.G., Rolett, E.L., Blahd, W.H. J. Nucl. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Protocol for two-dimensional magnetic resonance coronary angiography studied in three-dimensional magnetic resonance data sets. Post, J.C., van Rossum, A.C., Hofman, M.B., Valk, J., Visser, C.A. Am. Heart J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of maximal exercise stress on left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease using first pass radionuclide angiocardiography: a rapid, noninvasive technique for determining ejection fraction and segmental wall motion. Jengo, J.A., Oren, V., Conant, R., Brizendine, M., Nelson, T., Uszler, J.M., Mena, I. Circulation (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Right anterior oblique first-pass radionuclide ejection fractions: effects of temporal smoothing and various background corrections. Dymond, D.S., Halama, J., Schmidt, D.H. J. Nucl. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Application of the comet assay for investigation of oxidative DNA damage in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Marlin, D.J., Johnson, L., Kingston, D.A., Smith, N.C., Deaton, C.M., Mann, S., Heaton, P., Van Vugt, F., Saunders, K., Kydd, J., Harris, P.A. J. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Critical analysis of cineangiographic criteria for diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Daubert, C., Descaves, C., Foulgoc, J.L., Bourdonnec, C., Laurent, M., Gouffault, J. Am. Heart J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Sensitivity of cross-sectional echocardiography in detection of impaired global and regional left ventricular function: prospective study. Erbel, R., Schweizer, P., Meyer, J., Krebs, W., Yalkinoglu, O., Effert, S. International journal of cardiology. (1985) [Pubmed]
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