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Gene Review

AOC3  -  amine oxidase, copper containing 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Copper amine oxidase, HPAO, Membrane primary amine oxidase, SSAO, Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, ...
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Disease relevance of AOC3


Psychiatry related information on AOC3

  • Our parsimonious conclusion is that there is a relation between the risk factors of AD and vascular dementia (diabetes, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation) and SSAO activity, which may originate from the vessel wall [5].
  • We have previously reported that membrane-bound SSAO is overexpressed in the cerebrovascular tissue of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients [6].
  • SSAO activity was determined in plasma of control cases (n = 23) and patients suffering sporadic Alzheimer dementia, distributed according to the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS): mild (n = 33), moderate (n = 14), moderate-severe (n = 15) and severe dementia (n = 19) [6].

High impact information on AOC3


Chemical compound and disease context of AOC3


Biological context of AOC3


Anatomical context of AOC3


Associations of AOC3 with chemical compounds

  • The increase in SSAO activity observed in omental WAT likely results from an increased expression of the AOC3 gene since mRNA abundance and maximal benzylamine oxidation velocity were increased [18].
  • The hepatic sinusoids are perfused by blood at low flow rates, and sinusoidal endothelium lacks selectin expression and has low levels of CD31, suggesting that VAP-1 may play a specific role in lymphocyte recruitment to the liver [17].
  • DISCUSSION: The results suggest that VAP-1 levels are correlated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in morbidly obese subjects [3].
  • The sialic acids are indispensable for the function of VAP-1, since the desialylated form of VAP-1 no longer mediates lymphocyte binding [19].
  • In conclusion, VAP-1 naturally exists as a 170-kD sialoglycoprotein that uses sialic acid residues to interact with its counter-receptors on lymphocytes under nonstatic conditions [19].

Physical interactions of AOC3


Regulatory relationships of AOC3


Other interactions of AOC3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AOC3

  • Intraperitoneal and oral administration of the AOC3 inhibitor significantly ameliorated rat AIA [16].
  • Moreover, the new VAP-1 inhibitor effectively prevented the extravasation of PMNs in an animal model of inflammation [15].
  • RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Clinical characteristics and serum VAP-1 levels in 20 morbidly obese subjects (mean BMI 38.84 kg/m(2)) were measured before and after vertical banded gastroplasty [3].
  • The serum concentration of soluble VAP-1 (sVAP-1) was evaluated by ELISA and VAP-1 expression in the skin by immunohistochemistry [4].
  • The 90-kD form of VAP-1 was only seen in an organ culture model, and may represent a monomeric or proteolytic form of the larger species [19].


  1. Insulin-regulated increase of soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 in diabetes. Salmi, M., Stolen, C., Jousilahti, P., Yegutkin, G.G., Tapanainen, P., Janatuinen, T., Knip, M., Jalkanen, S., Salomaa, V. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Involvement of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase-mediated deamination in lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation. Yu, P.H., Lu, L.X., Fan, H., Kazachkov, M., Jiang, Z.J., Jalkanen, S., Stolen, C. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Change in vascular adhesion protein-1 and metabolic phenotypes after vertical banded gastroplasty for morbid obesity. Li, H.Y., Lee, W.J., Chen, M.J., Chuang, L.M. Obes. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of vascular adhesion protein-1 in atopic eczema. Madej, A., Reich, A., Orda, A., Szepietowski, J.C. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Soluble semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity is related to oxidative stress and subchronic inflammation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Somfai, G.M., Knippel, B., Ruzicska, E., Stadler, K., Tóth, M., Salacz, G., Magyar, K., Somogyi, A. Neurochem. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Human plasma semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), beta-amyloid protein and aging. del Mar Hernandez, M., Esteban, M., Szabo, P., Boada, M., Unzeta, M. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. A cell surface amine oxidase directly controls lymphocyte migration. Salmi, M., Yegutkin, G.G., Lehvonen, R., Koskinen, K., Salminen, T., Jalkanen, S. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning of vascular adhesion protein 1 reveals a novel multifunctional adhesion molecule. Smith, D.J., Salmi, M., Bono, P., Hellman, J., Leu, T., Jalkanen, S. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) mediates lymphocyte subtype-specific, selectin-independent recognition of vascular endothelium in human lymph nodes. Salmi, M., Tohka, S., Berg, E.L., Butcher, E.C., Jalkanen, S. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Association between plasma activities of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Boomsma, F., Pedersen-Bjergaard, U., Agerholm-Larsen, B., Hut, H., Dhamrait, S.S., Thorsteinsson, B., van den Meiracker, A.H. Diabetologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Aminoguanidine inhibits semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity: implications for advanced glycation and diabetic complications. Yu, P.H., Zuo, D.M. Diabetologia (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Mild renal insufficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality: The Hoorn Study. Henry, R.M., Kostense, P.J., Bos, G., Dekker, J.M., Nijpels, G., Heine, R.J., Bouter, L.M., Stehouwer, C.D. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Vascular adhesion protein-1 plays an important role in postischemic inflammation and neuropathology in diabetic, estrogen-treated ovariectomized female rats subjected to transient forebrain ischemia. Xu, H.L., Salter-Cid, L., Linnik, M.D., Wang, E.Y., Paisansathan, C., Pelligrino, D.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of AOC2 gene encoding a copper-binding amine oxidase expressed specifically in retina. Zhang, Q., Mashima, Y., Noda, S., Imamura, Y., Kudoh, J., Shimizu, N., Nishiyama, T., Umeda, S., Oguchi, Y., Tanaka, Y., Iwata, T. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Granulocyte transmigration through the endothelium is regulated by the oxidase activity of vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1). Koskinen, K., Vainio, P.J., Smith, D.J., Pihlavisto, M., Ylä-Herttuala, S., Jalkanen, S., Salmi, M. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Vascular amine oxidases are needed for leukocyte extravasation into inflamed joints in vivo. Marttila-Ichihara, F., Smith, D.J., Stolen, C., Yegutkin, G.G., Elima, K., Mercier, N., Kiviranta, R., Pihlavisto, M., Alaranta, S., Pentik??inen, U., Pentik??inen, O., F??l??p, F., Jalkanen, S., Salmi, M. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Vascular adhesion protein-1 mediates adhesion and transmigration of lymphocytes on human hepatic endothelial cells. Lalor, P.F., Edwards, S., McNab, G., Salmi, M., Jalkanen, S., Adams, D.H. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Increased monoamine oxidase and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activities in white adipose tissue of obese dogs fed a high-fat diet. Wanecq, E., Bour, S., Verwaerde, P., Smih, F., Valet, P., Carp??n??, C. J. Physiol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Human vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) is a unique sialoglycoprotein that mediates carbohydrate-dependent binding of lymphocytes to endothelial cells. Salmi, M., Jalkanen, S. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Vascular adhesion protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mediate T-cell binding to human hepatocellular carcinoma. Yoong, K.F., Williams, A., Hubscher, S.G., Salmi, M., Jalkanen, S., Adams, D.H. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Constitutive activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma suppresses pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules in human vascular endothelial cells. Wang, N., Verna, L., Chen, N.G., Chen, J., Li, H., Forman, B.M., Stemerman, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. STAT-1 and AP-1 decoy oligonucleotide therapy delays acute rejection and prolongs cardiac allograft survival. Hölschermann, H., Stadlbauer, T.H., Wagner, A.H., Fingerhuth, H., Muth, H., Rong, S., Güler, F., Tillmanns, H., Hecker, M. Cardiovasc. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Modified low density lipoprotein and its constituents augment cytokine-activated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 gene expression in human vascular endothelial cells. Khan, B.V., Parthasarathy, S.S., Alexander, R.W., Medford, R.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of anti-nuclear factor kappa B reagents in blocking adhesion of human cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells. Tozawa, K., Sakurada, S., Kohri, K., Okamoto, T. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. A role for c-Raf kinase and Ha-Ras in cytokine-mediated induction of cell adhesion molecules. Xu, X.S., Vanderziel, C., Bennett, C.F., Monia, B.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of leukocyte adherence and transendothelial migration in cultured human liver vascular endothelial cells by prostaglandin E1. Lou, J., Bühler, L., Deng, S., Mentha, G., Montesano, R., Grau, G.E., Morel, P. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Vascular adhesion protein-1 and ICAM-1 support the adhesion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to tumor endothelium in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Yoong, K.F., McNab, G., Hübscher, S.G., Adams, D.H. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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