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Gene Review

CHAT  -  choline O-acetyltransferase

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of CHAT


Psychiatry related information on CHAT

  • Administration of limb muscle extract at either embryonic days 1-3 or 4-7 produced a significant increase in choline acetyltransferase activity in the brain, indicating that the critical period of limb muscle extract in the brain to be between embryonic days E1 and E7, a period of neuronal proliferation and differentiation in the brain [2].

High impact information on CHAT


Chemical compound and disease context of CHAT


Biological context of CHAT

  • When neurones were grown on hydrated collagen gels, considerable cell survival and ChAT activity were obtained even in the absence of tissue extract [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The localization of ChAT in the differentiating fibers of the lens indicates that acetylcholine is synthesized during differentiation and modulates morphogenesis and elongation of mAChR-positive progenitor cells in the equatorial zone [10].
  • The data showing onset of ChAT expression prior to the onset of FGFR expression argue against a role of FGFR in the determination of the cholinergic transmitter phenotype [11].
  • Choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity of chick latissimus dorsii muscles was studied during embryonic development and at post-hatching states [12].
  • The data demonstrate an intracellular signal transduction pathway from the developmentally-activated insulin receptor through c-jun to ChAT and cholinergic differentiation [13].

Anatomical context of CHAT


Associations of CHAT with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of CHAT


Other interactions of CHAT


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHAT


  1. Choline acetyltransferase, choline kinase, and acetylcholinesterase activities during the development of the chick ciliary ganglion. Burt, A.M., Narayanan, C.H. Exp. Neurol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Muscle-derived factors enhance cholinergic neuronal expression in the chick embryo--I. In ovo studies. Brodie, C., Vernadakis, A. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential expression of the neuronal acetylcholine receptor alpha 2 subunit gene during chick brain development. Daubas, P., Devillers-Thiéry, A., Geoffroy, B., Martinez, S., Bessis, A., Changeux, J.P. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. A role for acetylcholine receptors in the fusion of chick myoblasts. Entwistle, A., Zalin, R.J., Warner, A.E., Bevan, S. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Neural cell adhesion molecule regulates cell contact-mediated changes in choline acetyltransferase activity of embryonic chick sympathetic neurons. Acheson, A., Rutishauser, U. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Synaptogenesis in chick paravertebral sympathetic ganglia: a morphometric analysis. Hruschak, K.A., Friedrich, V.L., Giacobini, E. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Cell survival in chick embryo ciliary ganglion is reduced by chronic ganglionic blockade. Wright, L. Brain Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Acetyl-L-carnitine has a neuromodulatory influence on neuronal phenotypes during early embryogenesis in the chick embryo. Kentroti, S., Ramacci, M.T., Vernadakis, A. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Cell survival characteristics and choline acetyltransferase activity in motor neurone-enriched cultures from chick embryo spinal cord. Flanigan, T.P., Dickson, J.G., Walsh, F.S. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Ca2+-mobilization and cell contraction after muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the chick embryo lens. Oppitz, M., Mack, A., Drews, U. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Development and distribution of noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons and their trophic phenotypes in the avian ceruleus complex and midbrain tegmentum. von Bartheld, C.S., Bothwell, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Developmental change in choline acetyltransferase activity in nerve endings of latissimus dorsii muscles in the chick embryo: influence of chronic spinal cord stimulation. Gardahaut, M.F., Rouaud, T., Renaud, D., Le Douarin, G. Neurosci. Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Co-localization of the insulin receptor, jun protein and choline acetyltransferase in embryonic chick retina. Holdengreber, V., Ren, Y., Ben-Shaul, Y., Hausman, R.E. Exp. Eye Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Subcellular localization of nerve growth factor receptors. Developmental correlations in chick embryo brain. Szutowicz, A., Frazier, W.A., Bradshaw, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Culture conditions affect the cholinergic development of an isolated subpopulation of chick mesencephalic neural crest cells. Barald, K.F. Dev. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Development of choline acetyltransferase activity in chick cranial neural crest cells in culture. Greenberg, J.H., Schrier, B.K. Dev. Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Different time course of development for high-affinity choline uptake and choline acetyltransferase in the chick retina. Bader, C.R., Baughman, R.W., Moore, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Kainic acid: neurotoxic effects after intraocular injection. Schwarcz, R., Coyle, J.T. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Correlation between morphological and biochemical effects of ethanol on neuroblast-enriched cultures derived from three-day-old chick embryos. Kentroti, S., Vernadakis, A. J. Neurosci. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential acetylcholine and GABA release from cultured chick retina cells. Santos, P.F., Carvalho, A.L., Carvalho, A.P., Duarte, C.B. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunocytochemical characterization of quisqualic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity in the retina of chicks. Fischer, A.J., Seltner, R.L., Poon, J., Stell, W.K. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. The neuropeptide VIP modulates the neurotransmitter phenotype of cultured chick sympathetic neurons. Beretta, C., Zurn, A.D. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Cholinergic neurons of the chicken ciliary ganglion contain somatostatin. Epstein, M.L., Davis, J.P., Gellman, L.E., Lamb, J.R., Dahl, J.L. Neuroscience (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. The developmental expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the neuropeptide VIP in chick sympathetic neurons: evidence for different regulatory events in cholinergic differentiation. Ernsberger, U., Patzke, H., Rohrer, H. Mech. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Distribution of R-cognin and choline acetyltransferase in the ganglion cell layer of developing chick neural retina. Dobi, E.T., Naya, F.J., Hausman, R.E. Cell Differ. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Cholinergic innervation of the chick basilar papilla. Zidanic, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Cholinergic neuronotrophic factors: I. Survival, neurite outgrowth and choline acetyltransferase activity in monolayer cultures from chick embryo ciliary ganglia. Varon, S., Manthorpe, M., Adler, R. Brain Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of opiates on the growth of neuron-enriched cultures from chick embryonic brain. Sakellaridis, N., Mangoura, D., Vernadakis, A. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Sound damage and gentamicin treatment produce different patterns of damage to the efferent innervation of the chick cochlea. Ofsie, M.S., Hennig, A.K., Messana, E.P., Cotanche, D.A. Hear. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
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