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Gene Review

SST  -  somatostatin

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: SS, SS1
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Disease relevance of SST

  • Here we use perforated-patch recordings to show that, in addition to this pathway, the peptide somatostatin inhibits the calcium current in chick ciliary ganglion neurons by a second soluble pathway involving a cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP-PK) [1].
  • Preincubation of the excised choroid with pertussis toxin (200 ng/ml) reverses the inhibitory effects of both morphine and somatostatin [2].
  • Somatostatin inhibits intestinal mucosal mast cell degranulation in normal conditions and during mast cell hyperplasia [3].
  • Compared with results regarding the direction of the overgrowth in the neuronal maturation process in the previous study using the chick exencephaly model, the findings of overmatured blood vessels were compatible with NSE- and somatostatin-positive elements that appeared especially in the overgrowth foci [4].

High impact information on SST

  • SOM (also coreleased from posthatch choroid terminals) can inhibit ACh release in both posthatch and St 40 choroids, suggesting that the SOM receptor interacts with both DHP-sensitive and -insensitive channels [5].
  • The pharmacological specificity of Ca2+ channel-secretion coupling in acetylcholine (ACh) and somatostatin (SOM) release was studied in the chick eye choroid neuromuscular junctions and in dissociated ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons [5].
  • Comparative genomics provides evidence for close evolutionary relationships between the urotensin II and somatostatin gene families [6].
  • Because several peptides originally found in the pituitary as within the central nervous system have been localized in lymphoid tissues and because somatostatin (somatotropin-release-inhibiting hormone, SRIH) can act on cells of the immune system, we searched for this peptide in lymphoid organs [7].
  • In sharp contrast to these findings for N-proCT, the other bioactive C-cell peptides, CT and somatostatin, showed no mitogenic effects in human or chicken osteoblast cultures [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of SST

  • A somatostatin receptor inhibits noradrenaline release from chick sympathetic neurons through pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanisms: comparison with the action of alpha 2-adrenoceptors [9].

Biological context of SST

  • Intense immunoreactivity for the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) on both the LHRH neurons and the SST-positive fibers during this period suggests that this less adhesive form of NCAM is involved in the migratory process [10].
  • The tissue distribution of somatostatin (SST) immunoreactivity was studied in the nasal and forebrain region in the chick embryo [11].
  • During prolonged applications of NE or SS the extent of inhibition decreases due to desensitization and reblock kinetics are significantly slowed (time constant increases from 60 msec to > 100 msec for both NE and SS) [12].
  • To explore whether these sequences could enhance transactivation by other inducible transcription factors, they were examined for their ability to synergize with the chick vitellogenin estrogen response element and the rat somatostatin cAMP response element [13].
  • Inhibition of growth hormone-stimulated lipolysis by somatostatin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factors (somatomedins) in vitro [14].

Anatomical context of SST

  • In particular, the observation that PSS1 mRNA, but not PSS2 mRNA, occurs in the preoptic area and in the ventral hypothalamic nuclei suggests that, of the two somatostatin isoforms, only SS1 acts as a hypophysiotropic factor [15].
  • The effect of PSA removal is more likely to involve changes in the interaction of the migrating neurons with a subset of the SST-positive olfactory fibers and/or other elements in the forebrain rather than an alteration in the pattern of their axonal substrate [10].
  • By E6.5, the neurons and SST-positive medial branch of the olfactory nerve have proceeded toward the septal area [10].
  • These results indicate that the expression of SST in the nasal and forebrain regions is transient in the chick embryo [11].
  • The acid-extract from both splenic and ventral lobes of pancreas was fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the SST-like immunoreactivity was measured in the radioimmunoassay using anti-SST-14 serum [16].

Associations of SST with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of SST


Regulatory relationships of SST


Other interactions of SST


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SST


  1. Somatostatin-induced inhibition of neuronal Ca2+ current modulated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Meriney, S.D., Gray, D.B., Pilar, G.R. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Opiate and peptide inhibition of transmitter release in parasympathetic nerve terminals. Gray, D.B., Pilar, G.R., Ford, M.J. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Somatostatin inhibits intestinal mucosal mast cell degranulation in normal conditions and during mast cell hyperplasia. Saavedra, Y., Vergara, P. Regul. Pept. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Neurovascular developmental interaction: a specific form of vascular maldevelopment in the malformed brain. I. An experimental study and proposal of a new teratological concept. Oi, S., Matsumae, M., Takei, F., Shinoda, M., Sato, O., Matsumoto, S. Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Developmental switch in the pharmacology of Ca2+ channels coupled to acetylcholine release. Gray, D.B., Brusés, J.L., Pilar, G.R. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparative genomics provides evidence for close evolutionary relationships between the urotensin II and somatostatin gene families. Tostivint, H., Joly, L., Lihrmann, I., Parmentier, C., Lebon, A., Morisson, M., Calas, A., Ekker, M., Vaudry, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence that somatostatin is localized and synthesized in lymphoid organs. Aguila, M.C., Dees, W.L., Haensly, W.E., McCann, S.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Procalcitonin's amino-terminal cleavage peptide is a bone-cell mitogen. Burns, D.M., Forstrom, J.M., Friday, K.E., Howard, G.A., Roos, B.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. A somatostatin receptor inhibits noradrenaline release from chick sympathetic neurons through pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanisms: comparison with the action of alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Boehm, S., Huck, S. Neuroscience (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Enzymatic removal of polysialic acid from neural cell adhesion molecule perturbs the migration route of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons in the developing chick forebrain. Murakami, S., Seki, T., Rutishauser, U., Arai, Y. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Transient expression of somatostatin immunoreactivity in the olfactory-forebrain region in the chick embryo. Murakami, S., Arai, Y. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Kinetic basis for the voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium current by somatostatin and norepinephrine in chick sympathetic neurons. Golard, A., Siegelbaum, S.A. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA sequences downstream from the vitamin D response element of the rat osteocalcin gene are required for ligand-dependent transactivation. Sneddon, W.B., Bogado, C.E., Kiernan, M.S., Demay, M.B. Mol. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of growth hormone-stimulated lipolysis by somatostatin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factors (somatomedins) in vitro. Campbell, R.M., Scanes, C.G. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of the cDNA encoding a somatostatin variant in the chicken brain: comparison of the distribution of the two somatostatin precursor mRNAs. Trabucchi, M., Tostivint, H., Lihrmann, I., Blähser, S., Vallarino, M., Vaudry, H. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 in chicken pancreatic islet D-cells. Takayanagi, M., Okada, Y., Kita, K., Naito, J., Watanabe, T. Tissue & cell. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Endogenous modulation of ACh release by somatostatin and the differential roles of Ca2+ channels. Gray, D.B., Zelazny, D., Manthay, N., Pilar, G. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. kappa- and mu-opioids reverse the somatostatin inhibition of Ca2+ currents in ciliary and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Polo-Parada, L., Pilar, G. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Developmental changes in calcium current pharmacology and somatostatin inhibition in chick parasympathetic neurons. White, M.G., Crumling, M.A., Meriney, S.D. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibition of PTH receptor binding and PTH mediated adenylate cyclase activity by somatostatin. Jüppner, H., Hesch, R.D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Insulin stimulates somatostatin and inhibits glucagon secretion from the perfused chicken pancreas-duodenum. Honey, R.N., Weir, G.C. Life Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Involvement of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 in the control of chicken thyrotropin secretion. De Groef, B., Geris, K.L., Manzano, J., Bernal, J., Millar, R.P., Abou-Samra, A.B., Porter, T.E., Iwasawa, A., Kühn, E.R., Darras, V.M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. The toxic effects of ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion on cholinergic cells in the chicken retina. Millar, T.J., Ishimoto, I., Boelen, M., Epstein, M.L., Johnson, C.D., Morgan, I.G. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. High concentration of somatostatin immunoreactivity in chicken pancreas. Weir, G.C., Goltsos, P.C., Steinberg, E.P., Patel, Y.C. Diabetologia (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. The gut supports neurogenic differentiation of periocular mesenchyme, a chondrogenic neural crest-derived cell population. Smith-Thomas, L.C., Davis, J.P., Epstein, M.L. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Cholinergic neurons of the chicken ciliary ganglion contain somatostatin. Epstein, M.L., Davis, J.P., Gellman, L.E., Lamb, J.R., Dahl, J.L. Neuroscience (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Immunoreactive somatostatin is present in discrete cells of the endocrine pancreas. Dubois, M.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Presence of somatostatin, enkephalins, and substance P-like peptides in cultured neurons from embryonic chick cerebral hemispheres. Louis, J.C., Rougeot, C., Bepoldin, O., Vulliez, B., Mandel, P., Dray, F. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the retinae of adult and embryonic chickens. Ellis, J.P., Sullivan, J.M., Rana, M.W. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Immunohistochemical characterization of monolayer cell cultures of embryonic chicken pancreas and measurement of somatostatin release. Barden, N., Dubé, D., Côté, J.P., Leclerc, R., Pelletier, G. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
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