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Gene Review

ACP5  -  acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant

Sus scrofa

Synonyms: TR-AP, TRAP, UF
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Disease relevance of UF

  • The invariant presence of UF binding components in sites of hematopoiesis during fetal development suggests that mechanism(s) unrelated to specific uptake of UF are responsible for neonatal anemia [1].
  • However, unlike reduced FIV Uf, the pink, high molecular form does not revert to purple, nor does it show loss of EPR signal and phosphatase activity in the presence of oxygen [2].
  • The type 5, acid phosphatase from spleen of humans with hairy cell leukemia. Purification, properties, immunological characterization, and comparison with porcine uteroferrin [3].
  • Analysis of uterine flushings with two-dimensional PAGE procedures indicated advanced uteroferrin-associated glycoprotein secretion from the horn that contained more-developed embryos [4].
  • Concurrent treatment of pigs with uteroferrin reduced (P < 0.05) the rate of 5-FU-induced leukocytopenia (44 vs 77 +/- 7% decline from baseline on day 3) and enhanced (P < 0.05), the recovery from 5-FU on days 10 and 12 postinfusion [5].

High impact information on UF


Chemical compound and disease context of UF


Biological context of UF

  • Catalase and superoxide dismutase had no effect on UF-induced lipid peroxidation in fetal liver membranes [12].
  • For treatments 7 through 10, membranes were preincubated (0 degrees C, 3 h) with either 7) no treatment, 8) 50 microM fetuin, 9) 50 microM holoretinol binding protein (holoRBP: retinol binding protein [HoloRBP] with retinol bound), or 10) 50 microM apoRBP (RBP with no retinol bound) followed by incubation with 50 microM ASC + 100 microM UF [12].
  • Finally, Southern hybridization analysis with two probes specific for exons 1 and 2 of the Uf gene strongly suggested the presence of only a single gene for acid phosphatases of this class in the pig [7].
  • TRAP purified from porcine spleen also had an NH2-terminal amino acid sequence that corresponded to that of Uf purified from uterine secretions and was also similar in sequence to intracellular TRAP isolated from tissues of other species, including ones from human osteoclastomas and spleen [7].
  • The hybridization signals revealed that the uteroferrin gene (ACP5) is located on swine chromosome 2q12-->q21 [13].

Anatomical context of UF

  • Combined ASC and UF caused a large increase (p < 0.05) in TBARS in all membranes except Day 30 placental membranes [12].
  • The functional relevance of this DNA-binding protein in the control of UF gene transcription in the endometrium is discussed [14].
  • It is concluded that the difference in trafficking between a secreted TRAP, such as Uf, and TRAP located in lysosomes is not the result of distinctive primary sequence of the polypeptides and that the variability within species ascribed to such enzymes is most likely the result of minor posttranslational changes [7].
  • Expression of the gene for the porcine transplacental iron transport protein uteroferrin (UF) is largely restricted to the uterus, where it is differentially regulated by estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) [15].
  • The increase in UF promoter activity with BTEB was mimicked by PR in a P-dependent manner in both cell lines [16].

Associations of UF with chemical compounds

  • Uteroferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein, which is abundantly synthesized in porcine uterine glandular endometrium and believed to be involved in maternal/fetal iron transport [17].
  • cDNA sequence, gene organization, and progesterone induction of mRNA for uteroferrin, a porcine uterine iron transport protein [18].
  • The steady-state level of uteroferrin mRNA is enhanced by progesterone but not by estrogen alone, although the extent of progesterone induction is lower than at midgestation [18].
  • The simple organization of the uteroferrin gene, which contrasts with those of the transferrin gene family, and the progesterone induction of uteroferrin mRNA expression suggest that, although this protein may have evolved in a manner distinct from other iron binding proteins, its regulation by steroid hormones may be similar [18].
  • Administration of E to gilts on Day 11 of the cycle slightly diminished UF mRNA levels at 1 h post-E; had no effect at 6, 12, and 24 h post-E; and increased levels of secreted UF in uterine luminal fluids 24 h post-E [19].

Other interactions of UF


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of UF


  1. Characterization and developmental expression of binding sites for the transplacental iron transport protein, uteroferrin, in fetal hematopoietic tissues. Michel, F.J., Fliss, M.F., Bazer, F.W., Simmen, R.C. Biol. Neonate (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and characterization of a high molecular weight stable pink form of uteroferrin from uterine secretions and allantoic fluid of pigs. Baumbach, G.A., Ketcham, C.M., Richardson, D.E., Bazer, F.W., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. The type 5, acid phosphatase from spleen of humans with hairy cell leukemia. Purification, properties, immunological characterization, and comparison with porcine uteroferrin. Ketcham, C.M., Baumbach, G.A., Bazer, F.W., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Ovulation and early embryogenesis in swine. Xie, S., Broermann, D.M., Nephew, K.P., Geisert, R.D., Pope, W.F. Biol. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Myelosuppression in the pig (Sus scrofa): uteroferrin reduces the myelosuppressive effects of 5-fluorouracil in young pigs. Laurenz, J.C., Hadjisavas, M., Chovanic, G.W., Bazer, F.W. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Uteroferrin has N-asparagine-linked high-mannose-type oligosaccharides that contain mannose 6-phosphate. Baumbach, G.A., Saunders, P.T., Bazer, F.W., Roberts, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Uteroferrin and intracellular tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases are the products of the same gene. Ling, P., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of pregnancy and exogenous ovarian steroids on endometrial prolactin receptor ontogeny and uterine secretory response in pigs. Young, K.H., Kraeling, R.R., Bazer, F.W. Biol. Reprod. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of stage-specific and hormonally induced polypeptides in the uterine protein secretions of the mare during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. Zavy, M.T., Sharp, D.C., Bazer, F.W., Fazleabas, A., Sessions, F., Roberts, R.M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Uterine response to progesterone in prepubertal gilts. Groothuis, P.G., Blair, R.M., Simmen, R.C., Vallet, J.L., Grieger, D.M., Davis, D.L. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Short-term effects of exogenous estradiol-17 beta on blastocyst development during the period of elongation in swine. Cárdenas, H., Trout, W.E., Simmen, R.C., Pope, W.F. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Uteroferrin induces lipid peroxidation in endometrial and conceptus microsomal membranes and is inhibited by apotransferrin, retinol binding protein, and the uteroferrin-associated proteins. Vallet, J.L. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Assignment of the uteroferrin gene (ACP5) to swine chromosome 2q12-->q21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Yasue, H., Kusumoto, H., Mikami, H. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. A regulatory element within the uteroferrin gene 5'-flanking region binds a pregnancy-associated uterine endometrial protein. Gonzalez, B.Y., Michel, F.J., Simmen, R.C. DNA Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of the uteroferrin gene promoter in endometrial cells: interactions among estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin. Fliss, A.E., Michel, F.J., Chen, C.L., Hofig, A., Bazer, F.W., Chou, J.Y., Simmen, R.C. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Trans-activation functions of the Sp-related nuclear factor, basic transcription element-binding protein, and progesterone receptor in endometrial epithelial cells. Simmen, R.C., Chung, T.E., Imataka, H., Michel, F.J., Badinga, L., Simmen, F.A. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Porcine purple acid phosphatase: heterologous expression, characterization, and proteolytic analysis. Naseri, J.I., Truong, N.T., Hörentrup, J., Kuballa, P., Vogel, A., Rompel, A., Spener, F., Krebs, B. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. cDNA sequence, gene organization, and progesterone induction of mRNA for uteroferrin, a porcine uterine iron transport protein. Simmen, R.C., Srinivas, V., Roberts, R.M. DNA (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of synthesis of uterine secretory proteins: evidence for differential induction of porcine uteroferrin and antileukoproteinase gene expression. Simmen, R.C., Simmen, F.A., Bazer, F.W. Biol. Reprod. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of the conceptus on quantitative and qualitative aspects of uterine secretion in pigs. Basha, S.M., Bazer, F.W., Roberts, R.M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of prolactin on conceptus survival and uterine secretory activity in pigs. Young, K.H., Kraeling, R.R., Bazer, F.W. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Intravenous infusion of iron and tetrahydrofolate does not influence intrauterine uteroferrin and secreted folate-binding protein content in swine. Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K., Klemcke, H.G., Pearson, P.L. J. Anim. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of phosphate with uteroferrin. Doi, K., Gupta, R., Aisen, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. EPR signal, purple color, and iron binding in porcine uteroferrin. Antanaitis, B.C., Aisen, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
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