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Gene Review

TF  -  transferrin

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of TF

  • Segregation at the loci coding for the K88ab and K88ac small intestinal receptors to E. coli adhesins (K88abR, K88acR) and at the transferrin (TF) locus was studied in 38 pig families including 273 piglets [1].
  • In uterine flushings, AP, RBP, and TF were low on Day 7, and then increased markedly (p < 0.01) by Day 13 in both cyclic and pregnant gilts [2].
  • The effects of experimental Salmonella cholerae-suis inoculation with a virulent and an avirulent strain on serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin (TF) were evaluated [3].
  • The authors repeatedly treated 59 patients with thoracic sarcoidosis with transfer factor (TF) since 1976 [4].
  • In this study, we determined the efficacy of TF as immunotherapy to treat experimental glioblastoma [5].

High impact information on TF


Chemical compound and disease context of TF


Biological context of TF


Anatomical context of TF

  • They utilized this therapy with TF from human tonsil lymphocytes (TFh) on account of the ineffectiveness of the corticosteroid treatment, because of the side effects of the corticosteroids, and as primary TF therapy, and to test an animal TF preparation from pig tonsil lymphocytes (TFp) [4].
  • Intratumoral TF reduced significantly the tumour size, and increased CD2+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK cell counts, it also increased the percentage of apoptotic tumour cells and the percentage of tumour tissue expressing Th1 cytokines [5].
  • When [59Fe]uteroferrin was introduced into the allantoic sacs of five fetuses at Day 60 of pregnancy, its iron was transferred to another protein, identified as transferrin [14].
  • The structure of the expressible VH gene from a hybridoma producing monoclonal antibodies against porcine transferrin [15].
  • The method is based on the intravascular and extravascular distribution of indium-113m labelled transferrin compared with the intravascular distribution of technetium-99m labelled red blood cells [16].

Associations of TF with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of TF


Other interactions of TF

  • The ALB gene was assigned to the q12 band of chromosome 8 and the TF gene to the q31 band of chromosome 13 [12].
  • Linkage between the loci for transferrin and ceruloplasmin in pigs [21].
  • Most of the TF and AFP (100 and 85-90%, respectively) reacted with Con A during the entire developmental period [22].
  • The simple organization of the uteroferrin gene, which contrasts with those of the transferrin gene family, and the progesterone induction of uteroferrin mRNA expression suggest that, although this protein may have evolved in a manner distinct from other iron binding proteins, its regulation by steroid hormones may be similar [23].
  • Escherichia coli grown in chemically defined iron-deficient media or in fluids containing the iron-binding proteins transferrin, lactoferrin, or ovotransferrin have well-characterized alterations in the chromatographic properties of tRNA's containing the modified nucleoside 2-methylthio-N6-(delta2-isopentenyl)-adenosine [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TF


  1. Evidence for linkage between K88ab, K88ac intestinal receptors to Escherichia coli and transferrin loci in pigs. Guérin, G., Duval-Iflah, Y., Bonneau, M., Bertaud, M., Guillaume, P., Ollivier, L. Anim. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Association between uteroferrin, retinol-binding protein, and transferrin within the uterine and conceptus compartments during pregnancy in swine. Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K., McGuire, W.J. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Iron and transferrin in acute experimental Salmonella cholerae-suis infection in pigs. Kramer, T.T., Griffith, R.W., Saucke, L. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Transfer factor therapy of thoracic sarcoidosis. Vezendi, S., Schröder, I. Allergologia et immunopathologia. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Interstitial transfer factor as adjuvant immunotherapy for experimental glioma. Pineda, B., Estrada-Parra, S., Pedraza-Medina, B., Rodriguez-Ropon, A., Pérez, R., Arrieta, O. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Protease-cleaved iron-transferrin augments oxidant-mediated endothelial cell injury via hydroxyl radical formation. Miller, R.A., Britigan, B.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. A transferrin-like GPI-linked iron-binding protein in detergent-insoluble noncaveolar microdomains at the apical surface of fetal intestinal epithelial cells. Danielsen, E.M., van Deurs, B. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of copper in mitochondrial iron metabolism. Williams, D.M., Loukopoulos, D., Lee, G.R., Cartwright, G.E. Blood (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparative study of Helicobacter pylori infection in guinea pigs and mice - elevation of acute-phase protein C3 in infected guinea pigs. Sjunnesson, H., Sturegård, E., Grubb, A., Willén, R., Wadström, T. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Arginine supplementation and its effect on established peritonitis in guinea pigs. Gonce, S.J., Peck, M.D., Alexander, J.W., Miskell, P.W. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Sequential assessment of pulmonary epithelial diethylene triamine penta-acetate clearance and intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation during Escherichia coli peritonitis. Ishizaka, A., Stephens, K.E., Segall, G.M., Hatherill, J.R., McDougall, I.R., Wu, Z., Raffin, T.A. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. In situ hybridization mapping and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the porcine albumin (ALB) and transferrin (TF) genes. Chowdhary, B.P., Johansson, M., Chaudhary, R., Ellegren, H., Gu, F., Andersson, L., Gustavsson, I. Anim. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Nucleotide sequence of porcine liver transferrin. Baldwin, G.S., Weinstock, J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Iron transfer between the purple phosphatase uteroferrin and transferrin and its possible role in iron metabolism of the fetal pig. Buhi, W.C., Ducsay, C.A., Bazer, F.W., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. The structure of the expressible VH gene from a hybridoma producing monoclonal antibodies against porcine transferrin. Urakov, D.N., Deev, S.M., Polyanovsky, O.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. External detection of pulmonary accumulation of indium-113m labelled transferrin in the guinea pig. Hultkvist-Bengtsson, U., Mårtensson, L. Thorax (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Hormonal regulation of thyroglobulin export from the endoplasmic reticulum of cultured thyrocytes. Kim, P.S., Arvan, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Growth-stimulating effect of transferrin on a hybridoma cell line: relation to transferrin iron-transporting function. Kovár, J., Franĕk, F. Exp. Cell Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Transferrin associated with the porcine intestinal mucosa is a receptor specific for K88ab fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Grange, P.A., Mouricout, M.A. Infect. Immun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Transferrin induces maturation of neutrophil granulocyte precursors in vitro. Evans, W.H., Wilson, S.M., Mage, M.G. Leuk. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Linkage between the loci for transferrin and ceruloplasmin in pigs. Juneja, R.K., Kuryl, J., Gahne, B., Zurkowski, M. Anim. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Concanavalin A crossed affinoimmunoelectrophoretic analysis of the major pig serum proteins during fetal development. Lampreave, F., Alava, M.A., Piñeiro, A. Electrophoresis (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. cDNA sequence, gene organization, and progesterone induction of mRNA for uteroferrin, a porcine uterine iron transport protein. Simmen, R.C., Srinivas, V., Roberts, R.M. DNA (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Alterations in the tRNA's of Escherichia coli recovered from lethally infected animals. Griffiths, E., Humphreys, J., Leach, A., Scanlon, L. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Cloning and expression of a transferrin-binding protein from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Gerlach, G.F., Anderson, C., Potter, A.A., Klashinsky, S., Willson, P.J. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Iron binding substances in the intestinal mucosa of neonatal piglets. Furugouri, K. J. Nutr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Conformational stability of porcine serum transferrin. Shen, Z.M., Yang, J.T., Feng, Y.M., Wu, C.S. Protein Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
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