The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

PRM1  -  protamine 1

Sus scrofa

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of PRM1


High impact information on PRM1

  • Thus, the effects of PROT on myocyte contractile processes are not due simply to the high positive charge of the molecule [3].
  • Direct effects of protamine sulfate on myocyte contractile processes. Cellular and molecular mechanisms [3].
  • BACKGROUND: Administration of the arginine-rich, highly charged protamine (PROT) molecule has been associated with episodes of acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction [3].
  • In addition, cAMP production after stimulation with isoproterenol and forskolin was significantly blunted in the presence of PROT [3].
  • In addition, PROT abolished the inotropic effects of ouabain on myocyte contractile function [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of PRM1


Biological context of PRM1


Anatomical context of PRM1

  • Microscopic examination revealed that PROT could traverse the vascular compartment of the myocardium and come in direct contact with the myocyte [3].
  • Renal NO production may be modulated by the addition of L-arginine, arginine homopolymers (R2, R6, R10), and protamine, all of which can potentially transport across cellular membranes and provide a substrate for nitric oxide synthase within kidney parenchyma [11].
  • These results do not support the hypothesis that protamine sensitizes vascular smooth muscle cells to the endothelium-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide [12].
  • Immunocytochemical localization of nuclear protamine in boar spermatozoa during epididymal transit [13].
  • The protamine is present in the cytoplasm of elongating spermatids and it enters the nuclei throughout the elongation process after possible storage in the cytoplasm or in the nuclear envelope of spermatids, or both [14].

Associations of PRM1 with chemical compounds

  • Ouabain receptor binding was 7.1 pmol/mg and decreased to 2.6 +/- 0.4 pmol/mg in the presence of PROT [3].
  • Substitution of arginine with lysine in the PROT peptide sequence ameliorated the negative effects on myocyte contractile processes; despite identical overall charge (21+) [3].
  • PROT reduced myocyte responsiveness to forskolin (100 mumol/L), which directly activates adenylate cyclase, by > 40% from forskolin [3].
  • To further establish that PROT can contribute to changes in LV function in the clinical setting, fluorescein-labeled PROT was circulated in antegradely perfused rabbit hearts [3].
  • To determine contributory mechanisms for the effects of PROT on myocyte sarcolemmal systems, beta-receptor- and cardiac glycoside-binding characteristics were determined in sarcolemmal preparations. beta-receptor binding was 175 +/- 10 fmol/mg and was reduced to 140 +/- 6 fmol/mg in the presence of PROT (P < .05) [3].

Other interactions of PRM1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRM1


  1. Differential effects of protamine sulfate on myocyte contractile function with left ventricular failure. Hird, R.B., Crawford, F.A., Spinale, F.G. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Mechanical and electrophysiological effects of protamine on isolated ventricular myocardium: evidence for calcium overload. Park, W.K., Pancrazio, J.J., Lynch, C. Cardiovasc. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Direct effects of protamine sulfate on myocyte contractile processes. Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Hird, R.B., Wakefield, T.W., Mukherjee, R., Jones, B.U., Crawford, F.A., Andrews, P.C., Stanley, J.C., Spinale, F.G. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Protamine-heparin-induced pulmonary hypertension in pigs: effects of treatment with a thromboxane receptor antagonist on hemodynamics and coagulation. Nuttall, G.A., Murray, M.J., Bowie, E.J. Anesthesiology (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Heparin-protamine reactions in pigs: role of oxygen-derived free radicals. Vollmar, B., Conzen, P.F., Habazettl, H., Yekebas, E., Peter, K. J. Appl. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Pulmonary hypertension after heparin-protamine: roles of left-sided infusion, histamine, and platelet-activating factor. Habazettl, H., Conzen, P.F., Vollmar, B., Yekebas, E., Gutmann, R., Hobbhahn, J., Brendel, W., Peter, K. Anesth. Analg. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Pulmonary hypertensive effect of heparin and protamine interaction: evidence for thromboxane B2 release from the lung. Degges, R.D., Foster, M.E., Dang, A.Q., Read, R.C. Am. J. Surg. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. The nucleotide sequence of a boar protamine 1 cDNA. Maier, W.M., Adham, I., Klemm, U., Engel, W. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification and characterization of a phosphorylation-activated, cyclic AMP and Ca2+-independent protein kinase in the brain. Yang, S.D., Fong, Y.L., Yu, J.S., Liu, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Optimization of adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer to pulmonary arteries in newborn swine. Badran, S., Schachtner, S.K., Baldwin, H.S., Rome, J.J. Hum. Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Improved planar amperometric nitric oxide sensor based on platinized platinum anode. 2. Direct real-time measurement of NO generated from porcine kidney slices in the presence of l-arginine, l-arginine polymers, and protamine. Lee, Y., Yang, J., Rudich, S.M., Schreiner, R.J., Meyerhoff, M.E. Anal. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Protamine does not affect the formation of cGMP or cAMP in pig vascular smooth muscle cells in response to vasodilators. Castresana, M.R., Zhang, L.M., Newman, W.H. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunocytochemical localization of nuclear protamine in boar spermatozoa during epididymal transit. Rodriguez-Martinez, H., Courtens, J.L., Kvist, U., Plöen, L. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunocytochemical localization of protamine in the boar testis. Courtens, J.L., Plöen, L., Loir, M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Neutrophil activation mediates protamine-induced pulmonary hypertension. Cho, P.W., Gillinov, A.M., Zehr, K.J., Burch, R.M., Winkelstein, J.A., Cameron, D.E. J. Surg. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Histidine-rich glycoprotein does not interfere with interactions between antithrombin III and heparin-like compounds on vascular endothelial cells. Shimada, K., Kawamoto, A., Matsubayashi, K., Ozawa, T. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Purification and immunochemical properties of choline acetyltransferase from human brain. Peng, J.H., McGeer, P.L., Kimura, H., Sung, S.C., McGeer, E.G. Neurochem. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Vertebrate protamine gene evolution I. Sequence alignments and gene structure. Oliva, R., Dixon, G.H. J. Mol. Evol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Evolution of protamine P1 genes in mammals. Queralt, R., Adroer, R., Oliva, R., Winkfein, R.J., Retief, J.D., Dixon, G.H. J. Mol. Evol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Extracorporeal heparin adsorption following cardiopulmonary bypass with a heparin removal device--an alternative to protamine. Tao, W., Deyo, D.J., Brunston, R.L., Vertrees, R.A., Zwischenberger, J.B. Crit. Care Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities