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Gene Review

fn1  -  fibronectin 1

Xenopus laevis

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High impact information on fibronectin


Biological context of fibronectin

  • A comparison of V-region alternative splicing between embryonic and adult liver RNAs indicates a segment of 345 nucleotides that can be either completely excluded or included in mature FN transcripts but there is no evidence for additional V-region variants [3].
  • The cellular forms of the FN protein predominate in the early embryo with the EIIIA and EIIIB exons included in most mRNAs at this time [3].
  • By comparing the activities of different fibronectin gene reporter constructs in fibroblasts and cadherin transfectants, the LEF-TCF site at position -368 was identified as a Wnt/Wg response element [4].
  • This may indicate that fibronectin-mediated cell migration is not required for convergent extension [5].
  • Lack of fibronectin fibrils in vivo is correlated with blastocoel roof thickening and a loss of deep cell polarity [6].

Anatomical context of fibronectin

  • Maternal mRNAs encoding alternatively spliced forms of FN can be specifically eliminated from Xenopus oocytes following the injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides into the cytoplasm, thereby making it possible to analyze the structure, composition, and function of FN mRNAs in early embryos [3].
  • In Xenopus laevis gastrulae, a fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix is deposited on the basal surface of ectoderm cells over which cardiac and visceral primordia move during development [7].
  • Our results suggest that the ability of xSyn4 to translocate xDsh is regulated by fibronectin, a component of the extracellular matrix required for proper convergent extension movements [8].
  • In the embryo of this frog, dorsal mesoderm involution can be diverted from its normal course by injection of peptides that inhibit interaction of fibronectin with its receptor [9].
  • This behavior is similar to that of migrating mesoderm cells in vivo that spread and form lamellipodia and filipodia on contact with fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix [10].

Associations of fibronectin with chemical compounds

  • Sequence analysis of cDNA clones encoding fibronectin (FN) from Xenopus laevis reveals extensive amino acid identities with other vertebrate FNs, including the presence of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) cell attachment site in type III-10 and of a second, cell-binding site (EILDV) in the alternative spliced V region of the protein [3].
  • To further investigate this, we made use of GRGDSP, a peptide which inhibits binding of integrins to vitronectin and fibronectin [11].
  • We have investigated the molecular basis of XTC-MIF-induced gastrulation-like movements by measuring rates of synthesis of fibronectin and of the integrin beta 1 chain in induced and control explants [5].
  • The extracellular portion of the macrophage mannose receptor is composed of several cysteine-rich domains, including a fibronectin type II repeat and eight segments related in sequence to Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) of animal lectins [12].
  • While these two sites are sufficient for cranial neural crest cell migration, we find that the second Heparin-binding domain of fibronectin can provide additional support for cranial neural crest cell migration in vitro [13].

Regulatory relationships of fibronectin


Other interactions of fibronectin

  • The distribution of fibronectin and tenascin along migratory pathways of the neural crest in the trunk of amphibian embryos [15].
  • In Xenopus, aggregates of mesodermal cells derived from embryos microinjected with alphaPIX significantly increased the peripheral spreading on fibronectin substrate in response to PDGF through PI3-kinase [16].
  • Our results suggest that the activation of PKC and tyrosine kinase but not actin reorganization plays a role in the SSC potentiating action of fibronectin [17].
  • The SSC frequency increased markedly right after a train stimulation, which was defined as post-train potentiation (PTrP), when the cultures were plated onto fibronectin substratum and chronically treated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) [17].
  • The cDNA clone is 4179 bp long and encodes a putative transmembrane glycoprotein of 718 amino acids, containing 12 leucine-rich repeats followed by one C2-type immunoglobulin-like domain and one fibronectin type-III repeat [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of fibronectin


  1. Temporal and spatial regulation of fibronectin in early Xenopus development. Lee, G., Hynes, R., Kirschner, M. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Primordial germ cells of Xenopus embryos: the role of fibronectin in their adhesion during migration. Heasman, J., Hynes, R.O., Swan, A.P., Thomas, V., Wylie, C.C. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification and characterization of alternatively spliced fibronectin mRNAs expressed in early Xenopus embryos. DeSimone, D.W., Norton, P.A., Hynes, R.O. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. The Wnt/Wg signal transducer beta-catenin controls fibronectin expression. Gradl, D., Kühl, M., Wedlich, D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Mesoderm induction and the control of gastrulation in Xenopus laevis: the roles of fibronectin and integrins. Smith, J.C., Symes, K., Hynes, R.O., DeSimone, D. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of cell polarity, radial intercalation and epiboly in Xenopus: novel roles for integrin and fibronectin. Marsden, M., DeSimone, D.W. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of vertebrate left-right asymmetries by extracellular matrix. Yost, H.J. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Syndecan-4 regulates non-canonical Wnt signalling and is essential for convergent and extension movements in Xenopus embryos. Muñoz, R., Moreno, M., Oliva, C., Orbenes, C., Larraín, J. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Vertical versus planar neural induction in Rana pipiens embryos. Saint-Jeannet, J.P., Dawid, I.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Embryonic mesoderm cells spread in response to platelet-derived growth factor and signaling by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Symes, K., Mercola, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. A GTPase controls cell-substrate adhesion in Xenopus XTC fibroblasts. Symons, M.H., Mitchison, T.J. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Contribution to ligand binding by multiple carbohydrate-recognition domains in the macrophage mannose receptor. Taylor, M.E., Bezouska, K., Drickamer, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Integrin alpha5beta1 supports the migration of Xenopus cranial neural crest on fibronectin. Alfandari, D., Cousin, H., Gaultier, A., Hoffstrom, B.G., DeSimone, D.W. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Xbra functions as a switch between cell migration and convergent extension in the Xenopus gastrula. Kwan, K.M., Kirschner, M.W. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. The distribution of fibronectin and tenascin along migratory pathways of the neural crest in the trunk of amphibian embryos. Epperlein, H.H., Halfter, W., Tucker, R.P. Development (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. alphaPIX nucleotide exchange factor is activated by interaction with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Yoshii, S., Tanaka, M., Otsuki, Y., Wang, D.Y., Guo, R.J., Zhu, Y., Takeda, R., Hanai, H., Kaneko, E., Sugimura, H. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of acetylcholine release by extracellular matrix proteins at developing motoneurons in Xenopus cell cultures. Fu, W.M., Shih, Y.C., Chen, S.Y., Tsai, P.H. J. Neurosci. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular cloning of XNLRR-1, a Xenopus homolog of mouse neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein expressed in the developing Xenopus nervous system. Hayata, T., Uochi, T., Asashima, M. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the tenascin gene family: evidence of origin early in the chordate lineage. Tucker, R., Drabikowski, K., Hess, J., Ferralli, J., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R., Adams, J. BMC Evol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Modulation of protein kinase A activation by fibronectin matrix proteins at developing neuromuscular synapses in Xenopus laevis cell cultures. Liou, H.H., Lin, W., Liou, H.C., Huang, T.F., Fu, W.M. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Fibronectin visualized by scanning electron microscopy immunocytochemistry on the substratum for cell migration in Xenopus laevis gastrulae. Nakatsuji, N., Smolira, M.A., Wylie, C.C. Dev. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Synaptic differentiation can be evoked by polymer microbeads that mimic localized pericellular proteolysis by removing proteins from adjacent surfaces. Anderson, M.J., Champaneria, S., Swenarchuk, L.E. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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