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Gene Review

DNApol-epsilon  -  DNA polymerase epsilon

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 6768, BAB17608, CG6768, DNA pol epsilon, Dmel\CG6768, ...
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Disease relevance of DNApol-epsilon

  • The present report describes the isolation of linear extrachromosomal copias whose structure closely resembles the analogous retrovirus provirus linears and whose synthesis is unaffected by inhibitors of the cellular DNA polymerase responsible for chromosomal DNA replication [1].
  • Under the appropriate conditions, DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli can elongate primers formed by primase in the presence of ATP and poly(dT) [2].
  • Baculovirus expression reconstitutes Drosophila mitochondrial DNA polymerase [3].
  • The ss DNA template is annealed with a universal sequencing primer, the primer extended with DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment and the DNA duplex cut at a unique site 5' to the multiple cloning sites in the M13 phage [4].

High impact information on DNApol-epsilon

  • We find a structure in RNA polymerase similar to the active-site cleft of DNA polymerase I. In the light of functional similarities between these two enzymes, together with other evidence, this probably identifies the active-site region of RNA polymerase [5].
  • Phylogenetic tree analysis shows that the accessory subunit animal mitochondrial DNA polymerase emerges as a result of horizontal transfer of the gene encoding glycyl-tRNA synthetase from a bacterium of the Thermus-Deinococcus group into the animal nuclear genome [6].
  • The jockey polymerase demonstrates RNA and DNA-directed DNA polymerase activities but lacks detectable RNase H, has a temperature optimum at 26 degrees C, requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ as a cofactor and is inactivated by sulphydryl reagent [7].
  • Arabidopsis TEBICHI, with helicase and DNA polymerase domains, is required for regulated cell division and differentiation in meristems [8].
  • Polintons from all these species are characterized by a unique set of proteins necessary for their transposition, including a protein-primed DNA polymerase B, retroviral integrase, cysteine protease, and ATPase [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of DNApol-epsilon


Biological context of DNApol-epsilon


Anatomical context of DNApol-epsilon


Associations of DNApol-epsilon with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of DNApol-epsilon


Enzymatic interactions of DNApol-epsilon


Other interactions of DNApol-epsilon

  • This polymerase shared some common properties with DNA polymerase epsilon from mammals and yeast as follows; it has a preference for poly(dA)/oligo(dT) as a template/primer, it is highly processive in DNA synthesis, it co-fractionates with 3'-5' exonuclease activity, it is sensitive to aphidicolin and is resistance to ddTTP [29].
  • A new DNA polymerase species from Drosophila melanogaster: a probable mus308 gene product [30].
  • In this report we have identified the Drosophila Dpit47 protein (DNA polymerase interacting tpr containing protein of 47 kDa) through its interaction with the DNA polymerase alpha [31].
  • Genetic analysis of the Drosophila DNAprim gene. The function of the 60-kd primase subunit of DNA polymerase opposes the fat facets signaling pathway in the developing eye [32].
  • On the basis of these properties, we propose that the DNA polymerase that we have purified from 0- to 2-hr Drosophila melanogaster embryos is DNA polymerase delta [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DNApol-epsilon

  • An immunoprecipitation analysis of crude enzyme fractions showed that the two subunits of Drosophila mitochondrial DNA polymerase are intact, and an in situ gel proteolysis analysis showed that they are structurally distinct [34].
  • After ligation the second strand is synthesized with the large fragment of DNA polymerase I. Libraries of up to 8 x 10(6) independent transformants have been obtained from 1 microgram of Drosophila poly(A)+ RNA [35].
  • The DNA polymerase eluted heterogeneously as anomalously high-molecular-weight molecules from Sepharose 6B gel filtration columns [36].
  • A new DNA polymerase with properties different from those of any known polymerase species was identified and partially purified from the wild-type fly embryos through ten column chromatographies [30].
  • The karyotypes were analyzed using C-banding and N-banding techniques, while DNA analysis was performed through the DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [37].


  1. Role of reverse transcription in the generation of extrachromosomal copia mobile genetic elements. Flavell, A.J. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. A DNA primase activity associated with DNA polymerase alpha from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Conaway, R.C., Lehman, I.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Baculovirus expression reconstitutes Drosophila mitochondrial DNA polymerase. Wang, Y., Kaguni, L.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. High-sensitivity S1 mapping with single-stranded [32P]DNA probes synthesized from bacteriophage M13mp templates. Burke, J.F. Gene (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme determined by electron crystallography. Darst, S.A., Kubalek, E.W., Kornberg, R.D. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Origin of an animal mitochondrial DNA polymerase subunit via lineage-specific acquisition of a glycyl-tRNA synthetase from bacteria of the Thermus-Deinococcus group. Wolf, Y.I., Koonin, E.V. Trends Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Authentic reverse transcriptase is coded by jockey, a mobile Drosophila element related to mammalian LINEs. Ivanov, V.A., Melnikov, A.A., Siunov, A.V., Fodor, I.I., Ilyin, Y.V. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Arabidopsis TEBICHI, with helicase and DNA polymerase domains, is required for regulated cell division and differentiation in meristems. Inagaki, S., Suzuki, T., Ohto, M.A., Urawa, H., Horiuchi, T., Nakamura, K., Morikami, A. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Self-synthesizing DNA transposons in eukaryotes. Kapitonov, V.V., Jurka, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of 3' flanking neighbors on kinetics of pairing of dCTP or dTTP opposite O6-methylguanine in a defined primed oligonucleotide when Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I is used. Singer, B., Chavez, F., Goodman, M.F., Essigmann, J.M., Dosanjh, M.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Conversion of monofunctional DNA adducts of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) to bifunctional lesions. Effect on the in vitro replication of single-stranded DNA by Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and eukaryotic DNA polymerases alpha. Hoffmann, J.S., Johnson, N.P., Villani, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase I and DNA polymerase alpha on single-stranded DNA containing either purine or pyrimidine monoadducts. Hoffmann, J.S., Moustacchi, E., Villani, G., Sage, E. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of a second proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA2) from Drosophila melanogaster. Ruike, T., Takeuchi, R., Takata, K., Oshige, M., Kasai, N., Shimanouchi, K., Kanai, Y., Nakamura, R., Sugawara, F., Sakaguchi, K. FEBS J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular cloning and expression during development of the Drosophila gene for the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon. Oshige, M., Yoshida, H., Hirose, F., Takata, K.I., Inoue, Y., Aoyagi, N., Yamaguchi, M., Koiwai, O., Matsukage, A., Sakaguchi, K. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Use of the DNA polymerase chain reaction for homology probing: isolation of partial cDNA or genomic clones encoding the iron-sulfur protein of succinate dehydrogenase from several species. Gould, S.J., Subramani, S., Scheffler, I.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison between DNA melting thermodynamics and DNA polymerase fidelity. Petruska, J., Goodman, M.F., Boosalis, M.S., Sowers, L.C., Cheong, C., Tinoco, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase from Drosophila embryos. Cloning, bacterial overexpression, and biochemical characterization. Lewis, D.L., Farr, C.L., Wang, Y., Lagina, A.T., Kaguni, L.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Evidence that a high molecular weight replicative DNA polymerase is conserved during evolution. Hübscher, U., Spanos, A., Albert, W., Grummt, F., Banks, G.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular cloning of the cDNAs for the four subunits of mouse DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex and their gene expression during cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Miyazawa, H., Izumi, M., Tada, S., Takada, R., Masutani, M., Ui, M., Hanaoka, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of reverse transcriptase genes in Fulvia fulva. McHale, M.T., Roberts, I.N., Talbot, N.J., Oliver, R.P. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. The detection of intracellular retrovirus-like entities in Drosophila melanogaster cell cultures. Heine, C.W., Kelly, D.C., Avery, R.J. J. Gen. Virol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity is regulated by ecdysterone in a Drosophila cell line. Becker, J.L., Barre-Sinoussi, F., Dormont, D., Best-Belpomme, M., Chermann, J.C. Cell. Mol. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Multiple forms of Drosophila embryo DNA polymerase: evidence for proteolytic conversion. Brakel, C.L., Blumenthal, A.B. Biochemistry (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Affinity labeling the DNA polymerase alpha complex. I. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate inhibition of DNA polymerase and DNA primase activities of the DNA polymerase alpha complex from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Diffley, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular cloning of the human gene, PNKP, encoding a polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase and evidence for its role in repair of DNA strand breaks caused by oxidative damage. Jilani, A., Ramotar, D., Slack, C., Ong, C., Yang, X.M., Scherer, S.W., Lasko, D.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Drosophila DNA Polymerase {zeta} Interacts with Recombination Repair Protein 1, the Drosophila Homologue of Human Abasic Endonuclease 1. Takeuchi, R., Ruike, T., Nakamura, R., Shimanouchi, K., Kanai, Y., Abe, Y., Ihara, A., Sakaguchi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Stimulation of Drosophila mitochondrial DNA polymerase by single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Williams, A.J., Kaguni, L.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Site-specific mutagenesis of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen enhances its effects on calf thymus DNA polymerase delta. Mozzherin, D.J., McConnell, M., Miller, H., Fisher, P.A. BMC Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. DNA polymerase epsilon from Drosophila melanogaster. Aoyagi, N., Oshige, M., Hirose, F., Kuroda, K., Matsukage, A., Sakaguchi, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. A new DNA polymerase species from Drosophila melanogaster: a probable mus308 gene product. Oshige, M., Aoyagi, N., Harris, P.V., Burtis, K.C., Sakaguchi, K. Mutat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. The Drosophila Dpit47 protein is a nuclear Hsp90 co-chaperone that interacts with DNA polymerase alpha. Crevel, G., Bates, H., Huikeshoven, H., Cotterill, S. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila DNAprim gene. The function of the 60-kd primase subunit of DNA polymerase opposes the fat facets signaling pathway in the developing eye. Chen, X., Li, Q., Fischer, J.A. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. DNA polymerase delta from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. Chiang, C.S., Mitsis, P.G., Lehman, I.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Subunit structure of mitochondrial DNA polymerase from Drosophila embryos. Physical and immunological studies. Olson, M.W., Wang, Y., Elder, R.H., Kaguni, L.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Functional cDNA libraries from Drosophila embryos. Brown, N.H., Kafatos, F.C. J. Mol. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Three forms of DNA polymerase from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Purification and properties. Brakel, C.L., Blumenthal, A.B. Eur. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  37. Karyotypic and molecular identification of laboratory stocks of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Basso, A., Sonvico, A., Quesada-Allue, L.A., Manso, F. J. Econ. Entomol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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