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Gene Review

ATOH1  -  atonal homolog 1 (Drosophila)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ATH1, BHLHA14, Class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 14, HATH1, Helix-loop-helix protein hATH-1, ...
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Disease relevance of ATOH1


Psychiatry related information on ATOH1

  • CONCLUSIONS: Math disorder and reading disorder + math disorder youngsters' lower sensitivity to sequence irregularity in their event-related potentials along with greater disruption of performance suggest working memory deficits that adversely affected response selection [5].
  • Many children with Math LD do not have an associated reading disorder [6].
  • A new 38-item Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers (SDQP) that measures 6 self-concept factors (Physical, Appearance, Peers, Parents, Verbal, and Math) was developed and tested [7].
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence of math learning disorder (Math LD) among school-aged children, overall and by gender [6].
  • Math Concept and Math Problem-solving grade-placement scores did not differ by type of administration; teachers' ratings were higher than those produced by either testing format [8].

High impact information on ATOH1

  • Subtracting the Math: prominin-positive cerebellar stem cells in white matter [9].
  • Stability of Hath1 protein was analyzed by expression of FLAG-tagged Hath1 in human cell lines [2].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: The transcription factor Hath1 plays a crucial role in the differentiation program of the human gut epithelium [2].
  • Surprisingly, the GSK3beta-dependent protein degradation was switched between Hath1 and beta-catenin by Wnt signaling, leading to the dramatic alteration of cell status between proliferation and differentiation, respectively [2].
  • METHODS: Tissue distribution of Hath1 messenger RNA in human tissues was examined by Northern blot [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of ATOH1


Biological context of ATOH1

  • Moreover, knockdown of Hath1 by means of RNA interference significantly decreased the expression of both mucin genes [11].
  • Hath1 up-regulates gastric mucin gene expression in gastric cells [11].
  • The mouse homolog (Math1) maps to mouse chromosome 6, and the human homolog (HATH1) to human chromosome 4q22 [12].
  • We demonstrate a correlation between Brn-3c and HATH1 reactivity in MCC biopsies and cell lines with retention of neuroendocrine phenotype [13].
  • In addition, transgenic mice with lacZ under the transcriptional control of MATH1-flanking DNA sequences express beta-galactosidase specifically in the developing nervous system, in a manner that mimics subsets of the MATH1-expression pattern, including the dorsal spinal neural tube [14].

Anatomical context of ATOH1


Associations of ATOH1 with chemical compounds

  • New nonlinear evolution equations are derived that generalize those presented in a Letter by Matsuno [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 609 (1992)]] and a terrain-following Boussinesq system recently deduced by Nachbin [SIAM J Appl. Math. 63, 905 (2003)]] [15].
  • The generation of new hair cells via Hath1 expression does not involve cell proliferation based on bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry [16].
  • More recently, fractal (Liebovitch et al. 1987. Math. Biosci. 84:37-68) and diffusion (Millhauser et al. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:1502-1507) models of channel gating have been proposed [17].
  • The method of moments (Stoyan, 1990, Model. Biomet. J. 32, 843) used in EDMA (Lele, 1993, Math. Geol. 25, 573) exhibits larger errors [18].
  • Plasma concentrations of d- and l-amphetamine, vital signs, teacher ratings of classroom behavior on the SKAMP, and 10-minute Math Test performance were measured repeatedly over 12 hours [19].

Other interactions of ATOH1

  • We also analyzed the transactivation of MUC2 promoter/reporter constructs by a HATH1 expression vector [4].
  • During phase 1, in the first week of differentiation, hath1 mRNA showed a small transient increase that correlated with the rapid accumulation of nestin message, a marker of neuroprogenitors [20].
  • The transcription factors Math1 and Brn3.1 are required for hair cell differentiation, and supporting cells express negative regulators of neurogenesis, Hes1 and Hes5 [21].
  • Although both factors induce neuronal differentiation, each factor has a distinct activity in the type of dorsal interneuron that forms, with overexpression of Math1 increasing dI1 interneurons, and Mash1 increasing dI3 interneurons [22].
  • There were three valve-related deaths of a total of ten deaths (early 2; late 1) (TE 2; ATH 1; CVD 0; PVE 0; PPL 0; and SVD 0) [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ATOH1

  • Using double-label immunofluorescence, we demonstrate that MATH1-expressing cells span both the proliferating and the differentiating zones within the dorsal neural tube, but within the EGL of the cerebellum are restricted to the proliferating zone [14].
  • Sequence analysis revealed that the DEVPD30/G and WEID85/N sites lie within the highly conserved HATH (homologous to amino terminus of hepatoma-derived growth factor) region, also known as PWWP domain [24].
  • Overexpression of Hath1 in HT29, an aggressive colon cancer cell line, resulted in a significant inhibition on cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and, more importantly, growth of human colon cancer cell xenografts in athymic nude mice [25].
  • Using a mass balance approach, the equations for an input-output model are derived and solved using Matlab (the Math Works Inc.). Changes in venous oxygenation are related to the results of fMRI experiments using progressively shorter periods of stimulation [26].
  • Twenty-nine subjects (14 men, 15 women; 18--44 yr) were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of two stressor groups, Mental Math or Electric Shock. Subjects presented with Math and Shock stressors, which lasted 10 min, experienced significant increases in cognitive and physiological arousal compared with baseline and control subjects [27].


  1. Cosmology. Math trick may cause tension headache. Seife, C. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Reciprocal targeting of Hath1 and beta-catenin by Wnt glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in human colon cancer. Tsuchiya, K., Nakamura, T., Okamoto, R., Kanai, T., Watanabe, M. Gastroenterology (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Null mutation of DNA strand break-binding molecule poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase causes medulloblastomas in p53(-/-) mice. Tong, W.M., Ohgaki, H., Huang, H., Granier, C., Kleihues, P., Wang, Z.Q. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. HATH1 expression in mucinous cancers of the colorectum and related lesions. Park, E.T., Oh, H.K., Gum, J.R., Crawley, S.C., Kakar, S., Engel, J., Leow, C.C., Gao, W.Q., Kim, Y.S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of event probability and sequence on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, reading, and math disorder. Klorman, R., Thatcher, J.E., Shaywitz, S.E., Fletcher, J.M., Marchione, K.E., Holahan, J.M., Stuebing, K.K., Shaywitz, B.A. Biol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Math learning disorder: incidence in a population-based birth cohort, 1976-82, Rochester, Minn. Barbaresi, W.J., Katusic, S.K., Colligan, R.C., Weaver, A.L., Jacobsen, S.J. Ambulatory pediatrics : the official journal of the Ambulatory Pediatric Association. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. How do preschool children feel about themselves? Unraveling measurement and multidimensional self-concept structure. Marsh, H.W., Ellis, L.A., Craven, R.G. Developmental psychology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Standard and modified administrations of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills with learning disabled students. Estes, R.E., Baum, D.L., Bray, N.M. Perceptual and motor skills. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Subtracting the Math: prominin-positive cerebellar stem cells in white matter. Kenney, A.M., Segal, R.A. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Production of a plasmid mediated AmpC-like beta-lactamase by a Klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia isolate. Pörnull, K.J., Rodrigo, G., Dornbusch, K. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Hath1 up-regulates gastric mucin gene expression in gastric cells. Sekine, A., Akiyama, Y., Yanagihara, K., Yuasa, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Evolutionary conservation of sequence and expression of the bHLH protein Atonal suggests a conserved role in neurogenesis. Ben-Arie, N., McCall, A.E., Berkman, S., Eichele, G., Bellen, H.J., Zoghbi, H.Y. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Proneural and proneuroendocrine transcription factor expression in cutaneous mechanoreceptor (Merkel) cells and Merkel cell carcinoma. Leonard, J.H., Cook, A.L., Van Gele, M., Boyle, G.M., Inglis, K.J., Speleman, F., Sturm, R.A. Int. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Progenitors of dorsal commissural interneurons are defined by MATH1 expression. Helms, A.W., Johnson, J.E. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Nonlinear evolution of surface gravity waves over highly variable depth. Artiles, W., Nachbin, A. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Robust generation of new hair cells in the mature mammalian inner ear by adenoviral expression of Hath1. Shou, J., Zheng, J.L., Gao, W.Q. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Markov, fractal, diffusion, and related models of ion channel gating. A comparison with experimental data from two ion channels. Sansom, M.S., Ball, F.G., Kerry, C.J., McGee, R., Ramsey, R.L., Usherwood, P.N. Biophys. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Bias and error in estimates of mean shape in geometric morphometrics. Rohlf, F.J. J. Hum. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study comparing a single morning dose of adderall to twice-daily dosing in children with ADHD. Greenhill, L.L., Swanson, J.M., Steinhoff, K., Fried, J., Posner, K., Lerner, M., Wigal, S., Clausen, S.B., Zhang, Y., Tulloch, S. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Developmental regulation of neurogenesis in the pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cell line NTERA-2. Przyborski, S.A., Morton, I.E., Wood, A., Andrews, P.W. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Sensory organ development in the inner ear: molecular and cellular mechanisms. Bryant, J., Goodyear, R.J., Richardson, G.P. Br. Med. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Distinct domains within Mash1 and Math1 are required for function in neuronal differentiation versus neuronal cell-type specification. Nakada, Y., Hunsaker, T.L., Henke, R.M., Johnson, J.E. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. The mitral medical pericardial bioprosthesis: new generation bovine pericardial prosthesis. Jamieson, W.R., Gerein, A.N., Ling, H., Miyagishima, R.T., Janusz, M.T., Tyers, G.F. Journal of cardiac surgery. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Caspase cleavage of the nuclear autoantigen LEDGF/p75 abrogates its pro-survival function: implications for autoimmunity in atopic disorders. Wu, X., Daniels, T., Molinaro, C., Lilly, M.B., Casiano, C.A. Cell Death Differ. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Hath1, down-regulated in colon adenocarcinomas, inhibits proliferation and tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells. Leow, C.C., Romero, M.S., Ross, S., Polakis, P., Gao, W.Q. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. The lag of cerebral hemodynamics with rapidly alternating periodic stimulation: modeling for functional MRI. Hathout, G.M., Gopi, R.K., Bandettini, P., Gambhir, S.S. Magnetic resonance imaging. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Activation of the arousal response can impair performance on a simple motor task. Noteboom, J.T., Fleshner, M., Enoka, R.M. J. Appl. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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