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Gene Review

C14orf166  -  chromosome 14 open reading frame 166

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CGI-99, CGI99, CLE, CLE7, CLE7 homolog, ...
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Disease relevance of C14orf166

  • Moreover, CGI-99 was highly expressed in all brain tumors which is in agreement with the Northern blot analysis [1].
  • The human protein hCLE was previously identified by its interaction with the PA subunit of influenza virus polymerase [2].
  • Diagnoses were acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the absence of lung infection (n = 16), severe pneumonia (PNEU; n = 88), ARDS and PNEU (n = 36), and cardiogenic lung edema (CLE; n = 13) [3].
  • In the authors' series, the incidence of retinal detachment after CLE was nearly double that estimated for persons with myopia greater than -10 D who do not undergo surgery [4].
  • PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-five eyes (55 subjects) had CLE with posterior chamber IOL implants for hyperopia up to 12.25 diopters (D); 31 eyes were retreated with PRK, and 34 eyes were retreated with LASIK for residual ametropias [5].

Psychiatry related information on C14orf166

  • VO2 and HR kinetics during CLE were significantly slower in HTR than in CTRL, whereas, unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for Delta[deoxy(Hb+Mb)] kinetics (mean response time: 21.3 +/- 1.1 vs 20.2 +/- 1.2 s) [6].

High impact information on C14orf166

  • Recent studies demonstrated that a family of plant-specific genes, CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (ESR) (CLE), which has at least 31 members in Arabidopsis genome, are able to generate extracellular peptides to regulate cell division and differentiation [7].
  • A hydroxyl 12-amino acid peptide derived from the conserved CLE motif of CLV3 promotes cell differentiation, whereas another CLE-derived peptide suppresses the differentiation [7].
  • Additionally, overexpression phenotypes of various CLE family members suggest roles in organ size regulation, apical dominance, and root growth [8].
  • Silencing of hCLE expression by RNA interference inhibited the synthesis of RNAP II transcripts around 50% [2].
  • hCLE/CGI-99, a Human Protein that Interacts with the Influenza Virus Polymerase, Is a mRNA Transcription Modulator [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of C14orf166

  • OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to determine if conversion from sustained release carbidopa/levodopa (SR-CL) with or without entacapone to carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone (CLE; Stalevo) improves motor functioning and quality of life in Parkinson disease (PD) patients and to assess patient tolerance and drug preference [9].
  • In an acute toxicity test on ICR mice, the LD(50) of WRE was 777.6 mg/kg i.p. An in vitro study showed that CLE possessed a more potent cytotoxicity to human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep3B) (EC(50) = 43.1 micro g/mL) than the other organic fractions, which were fractionated from methanol extracts of the leaves of L. sinense [10].
  • The authors report their experience with a more conservative approach to breast cancer in the elderly, using complete local excision combined with long-term tamoxifen (CLE and Tam) [11].

Biological context of C14orf166

  • In kinase assay, CGI-99 binds to hNinein and completely blocks the phosphorylation of hNinein by GSK3beta [1].
  • In addition, CGI-99 formed a dimer with the C-terminal, which overlapped with hNinein binding site [1].
  • Kinetics of adjustment of variables were determined during CLE [6].
  • At 12 months, the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had improved in 78.0% of eyes in the IOL group and 83.3% in the CLE group; no eye lost 1 line of BCVA [12].
  • It was shown that TCDD is a very potent inducer of both CLE biomass and number with a half-maximal effect concentration (EC50) of 1.4 nM [13].

Anatomical context of C14orf166

  • Taken together, we have isolated a novel protein CGI-99, which may be involved in the functional regulation of human ninein in the centrosome structure and may also be important in brain development and tumorigenesis [1].
  • Intracellular MxA levels of circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were significantly enhanced in patients with active CLE lesions [14].
  • Furthermore, a significant population of CD25+CLA+CD8+ T cells can only be detected in a subgroup of patients with disseminated scarring CLE and might reflect the systemic expansion of activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes involved in destruction of epidermal tissue [15].
  • The increase in mTGase and CLE in psoriasis is in contrast to the decrease in other markers of terminal differentiation in skin, such as synthesis of specific intermediate filaments, observed in this disease [16].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of the activation markers human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and CD25 on circulating T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry in 24 patients suffering from different types of active CLE [15].

Associations of C14orf166 with chemical compounds

  • In contrast to discoid LE and subacute CLE lesions, epidermal atrophy or alteration at the dermoepidermal junction was not detected [17].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Partial deficiency of C4, C2 or C4 and C2 is a common finding in patients with CLE [18].
  • Older patients, with longer disease duration not previously exposed to entacapone, may better tolerate CLE after the addition of entacapone [9].
  • Retinol was equally potent as an antagonist of the TCDD-induced elevation of CLE formation as compared with retinoic acid [13].
  • The plant materials were divided into two parts: (1) the roots extracted with water (WRE) and (2) the leaves extracted with methanol and fractionated with chloroform (CLE) [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C14orf166

  • One novel gene, CGI-99, was demonstrated to associate with hNinein in the yeast two-hybrid method and in vitro GST pull-down assay [1].
  • Accordingly, the expression profiling in hCLE-silenced cells studied by microarray analysis showed that, among the genes that exhibited a differential expression under hCLE silencing, more than 90% were down-regulated [2].
  • Here we show that hCLE and different phosphorylated forms of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) largest subunit, co-immunoprecipitate and colocalize by confocal microscopy analysis [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: IOL implantation for CLE, although an invasive technique, resulted in better refractive outcomes without laser-related clinical complications after PRK or LASIK adjustment [5].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative outcomes and intraoperative and postoperative complications of clear lens extraction (CLE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in highly myopic eyes [19].


  1. A novel ninein-interaction protein, CGI-99, blocks ninein phosphorylation by GSK3beta and is highly expressed in brain tumors. Howng, S.L., Hsu, H.C., Cheng, T.S., Lee, Y.L., Chang, L.K., Lu, P.J., Hong, Y.R. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. hCLE/CGI-99, a Human Protein that Interacts with the Influenza Virus Polymerase, Is a mRNA Transcription Modulator. Pérez-González, A., Rodriguez, A., Huarte, M., Salanueva, I.J., Nieto, A. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Surfactant alterations in severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and cardiogenic lung edema. Günther, A., Siebert, C., Schmidt, R., Ziegler, S., Grimminger, F., Yabut, M., Temmesfeld, B., Walmrath, D., Morr, H., Seeger, W. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Retinal detachment after clear lens extraction for high myopia: seven-year follow-up. Colin, J., Robinet, A., Cochener, B. Ophthalmology (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Clear lens extraction with intraocular lens followed by photorefractive keratectomy or laser in situ keratomileusis. Pop, M., Payette, Y., Amyot, M. Ophthalmology (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Noninvasive evaluation of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism after heart transplant. Lanfranconi, F., Borrelli, E., Ferri, A., Porcelli, S., Maccherini, M., Chiavarelli, M., Grassi, B. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. CLE peptide ligands and their roles in establishing meristems. Fiers, M., Ku, K.L., Liu, C.M. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Gain-of-function phenotypes of many CLAVATA3/ESR genes, including four new family members, correlate with tandem variations in the conserved CLAVATA3/ESR domain. Strabala, T.J., O'donnell, P.J., Smit, A.M., Ampomah-Dwamena, C., Martin, E.J., Netzler, N., Nieuwenhuizen, N.J., Quinn, B.D., Foote, H.C., Hudson, K.R. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Conversion from sustained release carbidopa/levodopa to carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone (stalevo) in Parkinson disease patients. Lyons, K.E., Pahwa, R. Clinical neuropharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The hepatoprotective effects of Limonium sinense against carbon tetrachloride and beta-D-galactosamine intoxication in rats. Chaung, S.S., Lin, C.C., Lin, J., Yu, K.H., Hsu, Y.F., Yen, M.H. Phytotherapy research : PTR. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Management of breast cancer in the elderly by complete local excision and tamoxifen alone. Sader, C., Ingram, D., Hastrich, D. The Australian and New Zealand journal of surgery. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Phakic intraocular lens implantation versus clear lens extraction in highly myopic eyes of 30- to 50-year-old patients. Arne, J.L. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Interactive effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and retinoids on proliferation and differentiation in cultured human keratinocytes: quantification of cross-linked envelope formation. Berkers, J.A., Hassing, I., Spenkelink, B., Brouwer, A., Blaauboer, B.J. Arch. Toxicol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Enhanced type I interferon signalling promotes Th1-biased inflammation in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Wenzel, J., Wörenkämper, E., Freutel, S., Henze, S., Haller, O., Bieber, T., Tüting, T. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR and CD25 on circulating T cells in cutaneous lupus erythematosus and correlation with disease activity. Wenzel, J., Henze, S., Brähler, S., Bieber, T., Tüting, T. Exp. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased membrane-associated transglutaminase activity in psoriasis. Esmann, J., Voorhees, J.J., Fisher, G.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Histopathologic findings in lupus erythematosus tumidus: review of 80 patients. Kuhn, A., Sonntag, M., Ruzicka, T., Lehmann, P., Megahed, M. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. The combination of complement deficiency and cigarette smoking as risk factor for cutaneous lupus erythematosus in men; a focus on combined C2/C4 deficiency. Boeckler, P., Milea, M., Meyer, A., Uring-Lambert, B., Heid, E., Hauptmann, G., Cribier, B., Lipsker, D. Br. J. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Clear lens extraction for the correction of high myopia. Fernández-Vega, L., Alfonso, J.F., Villacampa, T. Ophthalmology (2003) [Pubmed]
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